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Dealing with offenders.

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Introduction

Assignment 1 Reading: dealing with offenders A- Summary The chapter start by looking at the role of punishment .The purpose of imprisonment is mainly containment of offenders, their treatment and re-training. However prison authorities have accepted that training and treatment are no longer important priorities and achievable aims. These days imprisonment is seen more as the protection it offers to society, rather than as an environment which can change the individuals criminal lifestyle. It considers why prisons are ineffective in changing behavior and which methods appears to be more effective in trying to prevent offenders from committing further crime. There are many reasons why prisons are largely ineffective in preventing re-offending, two of the main reasons being that firstly 95 percent of those who commit crimes are not convicted and secondly those who are punished are sentenced months if not years after they have committed the crime. Wide ranges of methods, which attempt to reduce re-offending, have been used and will continue to be used. Although these differ widely depending on the type of individual and the type of crime. Different methods such as the 'penal harm movement', give expectations that perhaps prisons will be effective. For example: the problem of prisoners who are exposed to overcrowding will be motivated enough to remove themselves from the prison and try not to re-offend, although the opposite seems to be true. ...read more.

Middle

Firstly the author comments on the thoughts of the victims, and how they feel offenders should be dealt with. However the author then starts looking at the topic from a sociological angle as he refers what society thinks punishment is and how they think offenders should be dealt with. When mentioning the schemes and programs being arranged for the offenders, the author and many other theorists in the article refer to the behavior patterns and thoughts of the offender, whilst committing the crime and whilst in prison. The article refers to the behaviorist, cognitive and psychodynamic approaches, which are all branches or psychology. C-Terms and Concepts Reform Reform means to put an end to a wrong and cause a person to give up harmful or immoral practices and persuade them to adopt a better way of life, and change for the better. It is also an action to improve social or economic conditions without radical or revolutionary change. Referring to the article where the idea that reform will lead to a reduction in crime, using the Police Reform Act 2002, Police intend to do this working to give our police forces the skills, leadership and resources they need to provide a better service to our communities. They are also creating consistent ways to monitor police performance, so that they know which improvements are working. The offender may also be asked to change his ways while serving his/her sentence. ...read more.

Conclusion

Some say that deterrence has many positive effects and should be used. One example of its success is on the roads with drivers. Most impaired drivers are never stopped. Others are stopped, but police often miss signs of impairment. It has been estimated that close to 1,000 alcohol-impaired driving trips occur for every arrest. Because the police cannot catch all offenders, the success of alcohol-impaired driving laws depends on deterring potential offenders by creating the public perception that apprehension and punishment of offenders is likely. Research has shown that likelihood of apprehension is more important in deterring offenders than is the severity of punishment. Others have suggested that deterrence causes detrimental effects. A New York Times survey, released in September 2000, found that during the last 20 years, the homicide rate in states with the death penalty has been 48 percent to 101 percent higher than in states without the death penalty. Within the report Researchers Keith Harries and Derral Cheatwood studied differences in homicides in 293 counties that were paired based on factors such as geographic location and demographic and economic variables. The pairs shared a contiguous border, but differed on use of capital punishment. The authors found no support for a deterrent effect. They however did find higher violent crime rates in death penalty counties. Assignment 1 6 Kishwar Raj ...read more.

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