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AS and A Level: Sociological Differentiation & Stratification
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UK trends - gender
- 1 Men tend to outperform women in terms of income, wealth, promotion at work; they are more likely to have full time and /or permanent contracts.
- 2 In the home men do less housework than women and are much less likely to suffer domestic violence than women. Men are more likely to have control of finances and power in decision making in the family.
- 3 Women have better life chances in terms of life expectancy, preferential treatment by courts when awarding custody of children, some evidence of greater leniency in sentencing, more time off paid work with their children, lower suicide rates and are doing better in schools.
Key UK trends - social class
- 1 At work, those in the working class are more likely to have a below average paid job, a temporary contract and work part time.
- 2 In terms of policing and the criminal justice system, the working class are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police and to be arrested.
- 3 In the family people from working class backgrounds are more likely to marry younger and to get divorced.
- 4 In terms of health the working class are more likely, more likely to smoke, to miscarry their baby, to die of an accident at work and to die before their first birthday.
- 5 In education the working class are more likely to be placed in lower streams or sets at school, to leave school with fewer educational qualifications, and much less likely than the middle class to go to university.
Key UK trends - ethnicity
- 1 African Caribbean Britons are at high risk of being stopped and searched, getting longer custodial sentences, being excluded from school, being unemployed, living in a single parent family and achieving the lowest average GCSE scores.
- 2 British Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have the highest rates of poverty, living in cramped housing and female unemployment.
- 3 British Indians and British Chinese have higher than average educational success rates.
- 4 White Britons have better life chances than ethnic minorities in nearly all areas, with the exception of the British Indians and British Chinese.
- 5 There are significant differences WITHIN ethnic groups, so men and women, people from different social classes and ages have significantly different life chances.
and etc. In Asia, around 20% of families are extended families. Functionalist Murdock suggested an idea of universality of the family as family is the basic and vital institution in all societies. He looked at 250 societies and found four the most significant functions of the family: sexual, economic, reproduction and socialization. These functions are essential and meet needs in all societies and institution who best fits in performing them is family.
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Citizenship and religious education were introduced as compulsory subjects in schools to see that young people did things with thought for the society. The second function is to do with the skills that education teaches children, from literacy and numeracy to more job-specific skills. Occupational jobs are becoming more specialized and this in turn will lead to more years in education. The final function of education, according to functionalists is the allocating of roles of young people in society. Examinations and qualifications are said to allocate people for the\ir most suited job.
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Domestic violence follows certain social patterns and these patterns have social causes. Most shocking of which is that violent abuse is mainly commented by men against women. Catriona Mirrlees-Blacks survey in 1999 found that 99% of violent domestic crimes were against women, with roughly 1/4 women having been assaulted by a partner at one point in her life and 1/8 continually assaulted compared to 1/7 men that are assaulted by women, 1/20 repeatedly. This is supported by the Dobash and Dobash (1979) research based on official records and interviews with women's refuge residents.
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I probably wouldn't be as confident as I am if it was for their love. The Peers: * Peer group is defined as a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and usually similar age. Once we're able to, most of us begin to rely on our peers for information and approval about social behavior. * By the time I was in middle school, my friends and I were dressing alike, wearing the same hair styles, and behaving the exact same way.
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Today, families in Britain are very child centred because couples have fewer children. Gitten says that children have become a luxury and the parents talk about 'being able to afford a child' because children can cost over �100,000 to raise. Musgrove, a Functionalist says that children today are of no economic use because they have to stay at school until the age of 16 and so they are financially dependent on their parents.
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The American social order sees marijuana as a drug that corrupts the lives and minds of our young people, and is a horrible sin that should remain illegal. Marijuana is said to not have a redeeming value when it is said by Dr. Manuel Guzman of Complutence University in Madrid that recent studies show that when marijuana was tested it was proven to better the nature of cancer. Marijuana is also said to lower the pressure of glaucoma as much as 25%, as well as help patients who have AIDS.
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The Promo Indians would be horrified by the IK's approach towards family since they highly recommend family and that without it "we are nothing". Families are highly promoted in my culture since I am African, so we would lean towards the promo Indians. I believe that having a family gives you a sense of belonging and that there will be someone there who loves you and cares for. I also believe that the Nayar society of southern also stress the importance of family as they say "with us family is everything", furthermore they also have that sense of security as if "a Nayar girl got pregnant it was important that one of the husbands claimed that the child was his".
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This essay will look at gender inequalities from several different perspectives. Biology theories, socialist theories and feminist theories. Three questions that many sociologists have looked at are: Why are there gender inequalities? How are they sustai
The believe that children are taught to conform to their muscaline and feminie role and by doing so they meet the norms and expectations that are attached to that roleIn this theory gender inequalities exist because men and women are socialised into different roles. A belief that gender inequalities can be reduced or even eradicated through none sexist child rearing. Feminist theories- offer amore sociological conception on differences between men and woman, they place greater stress on structural and institutional factors.
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Alongside this, the researcher needs to be able to recognise aspects of a situation which aren't significant and worth further attention. If the observation is covert it can be very stressful and demanding. Another problem is reliability. Reliability means if another researcher repeats the method they would get the same results. To achieve reliability, research procedures must be standardised so that other researchers can reproduce them. Participant observation usually produces qualitative data; this can make comparisons between studies difficult. As a result, it's unlikely to produce reliable data.
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Official statistics are mainly used for the study of demography, inflation, crime and deviance, unemployment, poverty and suicide. For an example Emile Durkheim, regarded as the founding father of sociology, used official suicide statistics for his suicide study. He used them to find correlations and casual relations and identified four different types of suicide, egoistic suicide, anomic suicide, altruistic suicide and fatalistic suicide.
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Interviews, whether they are structured or unstructured, are social interactions and therefore influence the interviews answers
This is backed up by research by Ann Okay (1982) where she found it difficult to remain detached and neutral when interviewing other women about maternity and child birth. This could possibly mean that the interviewer must not be related to any of the topics discussed as there is always a chance of altering the results. So in this sense "Interviews are social interactions" In urn - structured interviews, there is a high sense of Artificiality, two parties are involved, in which one takes the initiative and asks the questions, under these artificial conditions, it is doubtful whether truthful answers can be obtained.
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In this sense, then, these theories suggest that people are the product or puppets of society. Functionalism is a structural theory because it sees society as a social system made up of interrelated and independent institutions such as education, work, religion, law and the family, etc. Functionalists believe that society can best be compared to a living organ, in which institutions and people all have a function to play with society. For example, the function of the family is to socialise children. The main function of these institutions is to maintain social equilibrium or order.
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For these reasons positivist sociologists favour quantitative methods and data. Based on these similarities with science, positivists would strongly believe that sociology is a science. On the other hand, interpretivists would contradict that view and say that sociology is not a science. This is because they argue that society is a socially created set of meanings shared by a social group. They negate the claim made by positivists that people simply respond to external forces, they believe people give meaning to a situation before responding to it therefore in order to understand society it is necessary to discover and interpret the meanings given to situations.
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absent parent and miss out on the advantage of having emotional support and dual insights that both a father and a mother can give. There can also be a disadvantage to this, if both parents are working then the child or children have to be left by themselves. On the whole, in my opinion, a nuclear family is very stable and is the preferred family overall, with many advantages and only very few disadvantages. Robert Chester (1985) argues that, despite what the critics of the nuclear family may argue, most people spend at least part of their life within this type of family structure.
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I believe they feel this is more beneficial than the actual learning of subjects. They believe this because, even if a member of the school is not smart, does not learn, achieves poor grades, but learns social values, they will still be a fundamental member of society. These people will fill the low class jobs. However, if a student is smart, and achieves good grades, but goes out into society without his norms and values, he will fail, and not function correctly.
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powerful and dominant of the sexes religious beliefs has a basis in patriarchy * Religious scripture: o Church uses male pro nouns and commands women to take a subservient role: * "Let women learn in silence with all subjection" * "All wickedness is but little to the wickedness of a women" * "He is in
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They are not members of society; they are not even pseudo members, like corporations and governments. They are not independent agents. Like cars and telephones, they only do things if and when someone uses them. They can neither be blamed for what they do (are used for), nor given credit for what they do (are used for)."2 Here Holmes is arguing in favour of the above statement, he is telling readers that computers should not be classified as living being that they are just machines which we can control or use to assist ones doing, they are helpers or assistants.
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argued that all of this happened due to unhappy marriages which are likely to end in divorce and the number of empty-shell marriages has declined. The divorce rate partially reflects legal changes. When the law was liberalised to make divorce easier to obtain, there became an increase in the numbers applying for divorce. This is not a course of divorce but a reflection of unhappy marriages. Goode has argued that this process of liberalisation is part of a wider process of secularisation in western societies, by which he means that it reflects the decline in the institution of religion.
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Assess the view that religion was once mainly a conservative force but today is more of a force for social change.
In modern times, religion has acted as both a conservative force and a force for social change, as shown by Islamic Fundamentalist movements in Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan and Christian Fundamentalist Reverend Criswell's actions, such as re-introducing the teaching of creationism, in the US. Traditional Marxists believe that religion, described as 'the opium of the people' and 'spiritual gin' by Marx and Lenin, dilutes the demand for social change as it makes life seem more bearable, such as by promising rewards after death for their suffering.
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This guarantees that the child has a strong valued consensus and feels a strong sense of belonging to society. Functionalists see secondary stages of socialisation as agents that reinforce a stronger valued consensus. Education is seen as an essential system that transmits shared cultural values. Certain subjects such as History and religious education link the individual to society by encouraging a sense of pride in historical and religious achievements. This reinforces their sense of belonging into the society and makes for a stronger valued consensus.
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Throughout the years Ontario has become a very multicultural province, meaning all schools are multicultural. Recently the government of Ontario has thought about the idea of having schools that are race-specific. These schools would only be open for a sp
Going to race-specific school students will only be taught about the culture, and history of their own country. Also, they will be taught about the history of their race in Canada, and what their people have done that has impacted our history. This is not right because they need to learn about what every race did that impacted our history. Since we are now living in a multicultural county. Zanana Akande, an Ontario Legislature speaks on black focussed schools and says "The situation in which we live, work and raise our kids is not a segregated one, it is an integrated one."
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This sociologist created life course analysis which shows flexibility of family lives choices. It focuses on the meanings family members give to life events. Holdsworth and Morgan (2005) supported this by examining what means for individuals to be independent and how other people influence their decisions. The positive aspects of life course analysis are that it gives free choice for families and fits modern society because of diversity increase. The similar opinion has David Morgan (1996) who uses the concept of 'family practices' what describes the actions which family members actually do. Family practices are influenced by the views on rights and obligations we have within the family.
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So, languages spoken by comparatively larger population are given more importance. This is usually the case everywhere. In doing so, however, minority languages haven't been able to progress, and have almost gone extinct as a result of lack of preservation, promotion and equal status. Every language holds equal importance to its native speaker. One can fully express himself only through his/her own native language.
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By worshiping together, people devolved a sense of commitment and belonging as individuals are shared with the same common value. Also, it restrained deviant behavior and social changes are restricted. Furthermore, Malinoski says that religion can help people come to terms with changed for example the death of a loved one allows people to adjust to their new situation. Marx does not agree with this view that religion 'benefit society'. Rather, he argues that religion only reproduce, maintain and legitimate class inequality, which only serves to reflect the ruling class ideas and interests.
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Also due to the legalisation of abortions in 1967, the termination of unwanted pregnancies has become easier. Another would be the introduction of compulsory education for children from 1880 due to the laws on children working; this resulted in children being less of an economic asset that could contribute to the income and welfare of the family. Children have therefore become an economic liability band a drain on parental resources because the parents have to support their children through compulsory education and often post 16, therefore parents tend to limit their family size so that they are able to secure a higher standard of living for themselves and their family, also the move to a more child-centred
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