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AS and A Level: Sociological Differentiation & Stratification

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UK trends - gender

  1. 1 Men tend to outperform women in terms of income, wealth, promotion at work; they are more likely to have full time and /or permanent contracts.
  2. 2 In the home men do less housework than women and are much less likely to suffer domestic violence than women. Men are more likely to have control of finances and power in decision making in the family.
  3. 3 Women have better life chances in terms of life expectancy, preferential treatment by courts when awarding custody of children, some evidence of greater leniency in sentencing, more time off paid work with their children, lower suicide rates and are doing better in schools.

Key UK trends - social class

  1. 1 At work, those in the working class are more likely to have a below average paid job, a temporary contract and work part time.
  2. 2 In terms of policing and the criminal justice system, the working class are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police and to be arrested.
  3. 3 In the family people from working class backgrounds are more likely to marry younger and to get divorced.
  4. 4 In terms of health the working class are more likely, more likely to smoke, to miscarry their baby, to die of an accident at work and to die before their first birthday.
  5. 5 In education the working class are more likely to be placed in lower streams or sets at school, to leave school with fewer educational qualifications, and much less likely than the middle class to go to university.

Key UK trends - ethnicity

  1. 1 African Caribbean Britons are at high risk of being stopped and searched, getting longer custodial sentences, being excluded from school, being unemployed, living in a single parent family and achieving the lowest average GCSE scores.
  2. 2 British Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have the highest rates of poverty, living in cramped housing and female unemployment.
  3. 3 British Indians and British Chinese have higher than average educational success rates.
  4. 4 White Britons have better life chances than ethnic minorities in nearly all areas, with the exception of the British Indians and British Chinese.
  5. 5 There are significant differences WITHIN ethnic groups, so men and women, people from different social classes and ages have significantly different life chances.

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  1. Discuss how the Olympics Games have both enhanced and inhibited the development of sports participation amongst the ethnic minority populations of the Olympic nations.

    The success of Jesse Owen gave the black people confidence to believe they are as good as the white people. Discrimination of an ethnic minority country prevents access, participation and opportunities, as they wouldn't be allowed to compete due to this unjust way of society.

    • Word count: 495
  2. Exploring Power & Control in the Family

    Item C also suggests that the sexual division of labour still exists due to the fact that women may deal with situations over which they have little control by defining them as satisfactory. 4. The mother-housewife role may limit women's employment opportunities by the responsibility of the "school run". If the women has to drop of her child(ren) at school in the morning and collect them at the end of the school day she may not be employed as she may be needed to work a full day eg.

    • Word count: 724
  3. Methodology of Encouraging Diversity in the Fire Service.

    The fire service has different methods of trying to recruit a diverse workforce. To start with, they employ an 'outreach worker'. This is an individual who is employed to 'outreach' to the community. They promote the fire service in minority communities and try to show them what the fire service has to offer. They try to persuade the minorities that the police force has something to offer them and that they should be applying.

    • Word count: 556
  4. Social Class and Ethnic Inequalities in Education.

    Adequate funding must be available for those local education authorities with high numbers of pupils from minority ethnic groups. Without this commitment, schools cannot succeed in giving all pupils an equal chance of achieving their full potential. Ethnic groups in Britain face social and economic exclusion through low educational attainment. Inequalities of attainment in GCSE examinations place many minority ethnic pupils in a disadvantaged position in the youth education, labour, and training markets, and increase the likelihood of social and economic exclusion in later life1 *?All ethnic groups can achieve good results. Recent research shows that every one of the six principal minority ethnic groups achieves higher levels of attainment than the other groups in at least one local education authority in the country.

    • Word count: 542
  5. Many people do think that much of the crime that is committed in society are committed by the ethnic minorities, but why is this?

    This means that there is a racist tendency by the media to over represent blacks. Cohen (1973) says that the media manufactures folk devils and therefore moral panics by exaggerating the coverage of an incidence and therefore increasing peoples notice of it in everyday life. He feels that these groups are purposely used as scapegoats by the media. These support my aim, found my rationale, as it says that the media reports inaccurately, often picking on a group to exploit them for racist reasons. Gilroy and Hall's research also points out that there is an inaccuracy towards blacks, which correlates directly with my own research.

    • Word count: 727
  6. Gender Psychological Differences.

    From the age, we can simply know that the man and woman have the many differences. And those of these differences can become a conflict. On the other hand, race also is a famous gender psychological difference in the work place. This is an important element in this world. From this way, we can know that different race of people have different thinks.

    • Word count: 456
  7. Should the Holocaust be taught in schools?

    His famous line is, "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." In spirit, this unoriginal quotation says that if you do not learn what went wrong in the past, then the same mistake will happen again. If it does not get taught, then people will forget. And that is dangerous. In fact, the dangers of it have already been seen this decade. As less and less people were getting education on the Holocaust, less and less people were paying attention to the world around them.

    • Word count: 540
  8. Assess the view that children from ethnic minorities under-achieve in education because of discrimination and stereo typing in schools.

    found that staffs in four multiracial schools were committed to the idea of educational opportunity. But, some assumptions they held led to some black children being 'racialised'. These children were unintentionally discriminated against because teachers held beliefs about racial attributes. For example, Asian girls were seen as quiet and submissive and this rendered them invisible in class, also Afro-Caribbean's were seen as both to have both behavioural problems and a low academic potential; this resulted in conflict with teachers. As of this conflict with teachers these students were more likely to be placed in lower sets and also placed on courses, which would not fit their needs.

    • Word count: 632
  9. To what extent is there a British underclass?

    J. Rex says that there is a black underclass in Britain as a result of the nature of employment. Black people are concentrated in jobs like transport (bus/ tube drivers) and cleaners, women as low level nurses. Marxist would argue that the reason why ethnic minorities are in the position that they are in is because Britain is a capitalist society. Oppenheim (1993) lists some of the reasons why there has been an increase in poverty over the last few decades. He argues that there has been an increase in unemployment between 1979 and 1986 unemployment tripled to over 3 million people.

    • Word count: 613
  10. Examine the ways in which factors in pupils home background may affect their educational attainment.

    However, Bowles and Gintis feel class rather then IQ is the most important factor in determining how successful a student will be. The concept of IQ testing, is in itself a social construction; it has an inbuilt bias against those who have a different cultural background from those who constructed it. Bourdieu feels middle and upper class students have a distict advantage which is known as cultural capital. Their lack of knowledge of the dominant culture disadvantages them imediately and continues to act a barrier to learning, which means they are more likely to fail exams.

    • Word count: 589
  11. Critically asses the article "Ethnic Conflict" by Yahya Sadowski.

    Their ideas on ethnic conflicts have been influenced by these myths. In the beginning of the article, the author quickly presented the first myth that stated: "The Number of Ethnic Conflicts Rose Dramatically at the End of the Cold War." One might ask the question: "Is this true?" The answer is no. According to the statistics provided by the author, after 1945, ethnic conflicts had formed a large number of wars ever since decolonization swept through the developing countries. When the Cold War ended some of the wars stopped such as the Lebanese civil war and the regional clashes in Chad.

    • Word count: 693
  12. The Royal Marines Policies and procedures.

    They did this by identifying ares such as race, religion, gender, age, colour, ethnic origin and marital status. The Royal Marines believe everyone should have equal opportunities and should be able to work in an environment free from intimidation, sexual harassment and unlawful discrimination which may work against them when trying to fulfill their true potential. For applicants wanting to join the Marines they have to pass to multiple-choice tests based on general knowledge and are around GCSE grade C level. Then they will have to pass a medical and a general fitness test, which includes the bleep test.

    • Word count: 676
  13. In this coursework I will try to do a computerize system which will be very user friendly for Feydhoo School. And also I will try my best to do this with out any bugs.

    All this work is done in manual. THE TOPIC FOR MY COURSEWORK & WHY I CHOOSE THIS? To do my computing coursework, at first I think of very carefully to do a good one. Then I took some manual system that works in some places. From that I took 'FEYDHOO SCHOOL STUDENT'S MARKS SHEET'.

    • Word count: 441
  14. Ethnic minorities remain concentrated in the inner areas of many MEDC cities. Evaluate this statement with reference to specific examples from your studies.

    Ethnic minorities have always traditionally been concentrated in central areas ever since the first wave of immigration in 1948-1968 where they left the unemployment and poverty in their own country to look for work in semi skilled low paid jobs where black Caribbeans filled the labour gap left by the second world war initially in cities such as London to work on the Underground transport system, then immigrated to fill labour requirements in rapidly expanding industries such as the textile industry in Bradford which attracted many immigrants from the Indian Subcontinent.

    • Word count: 938
  15. Discuss the view that conjugal roles are becoming joint in families.

    However according to Bott joint relationships are in existence, however this depends on the class and background that the couples have each come from, joint relationships is when there is a minimum of tasks differentiation and separation of interests. Wilmott and Young (1975) identifies a growth in joint conjugal roles this relatively new type of companionship between men and women is evident more so in the middle and working class.

    • Word count: 485
  16. Discuss the Representation of Women in this Extract of 'Four Weddings and a Funeral'.

    The women's hair styles are all very smart and modern. Their hair looks shiny, healthy and well groomed which indicates to us that they can afford to go to the salon often. The women all speak very 'good' English and have middle class accents, which indicates to us again that they are middle class. Many of the women in this extract are single, and seem to have been Hugh Grants girlfriends at one stage.

    • Word count: 528
  17. The aim of the fieldwork is to analyse the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the resident population and the quality of the residential environment within different parts of Durham City.

    Robson found that a mixture of concentric circles and sectors that identified the urban zones formed the framework to Sunderland. One thing to note is that a great dominance of areas of low and medium class housing were found more centrally than that of the higher class of living found on the outskirts. Chapter 2 Method Each group will visit each ward in Durham city, these being 1. Carville 2. Belmont 3. Gilesgate moor 4. Gilesgate 5. Elvet 6. Nevilles Cross 7.

    • Word count: 745
  18. Recruiting from Ethnic Minority Groups.

    He's asking them if they know anything about the army. The Language used in the poster indicates a challenge being made. This challenge is to persuade people to join the army. To try and attract more ethnic minority men and women to join and also to realise that there are already some there. However, it is an aggressive piece of language and could be taken offensively by the very people they want to attract. The poster is designed to persuade ethnic groups to join the army. I feel they may have failed to do this as it could be regarded as offensive and could put them off.

    • Word count: 646
  19. In this essay I will explore and discuss the British nationalist party, and give my views to the question

    First I think that many people in Britain are suspicious and perhaps afraid of ethnic minorities in their communities. Due to the increase of Asylum seekers into Britain some parts of the country are faced with a sudden change in ethnic population. Some predominantly white areas have sadly matured with subtle racist views and to suddenly have their area thrust into a neighbourhood of mixed and diverse cultures can make the sometimes "narrow minded" people of the community feel threatened and isolated, leading to them voting for extremist groups like the British Nationalists. Also since the tragic attacks on September 11th many people have been scarred with stereotypical views of ethnic minorities.

    • Word count: 789
  20. What follows is a commentary on the Assessment Criteria relating to CCEA AS Level English Literature The Study of Prose Written Before Nineteen Hundred

    Candidates should be able to: * Select and use a form of writing appropriate to purpose and to complex literary subject matter; * Present lucid and well constructed and organised responses to the questions asked; * Organise relevant material clearly and coherently using an appropriate literary vocabulary to express and articulate the ideas and concepts which they wish to communicate; * Ensure writing is legible, with accurate use of spelling, grammar and punctuation in order to make meaning clear. Commentary Students are asked to express grasp and insights using the terminology appropriate to literary study.

    • Word count: 760
  21. Sociology and Ethics

    Sociology majors can find jobs in social service agencies, public relations, government agencies, educational institutions, hospitals, management, and human resources. Employers search for people with the ability to work well under pressure, and to be able to read and write analytically (www.jmu.edu). Being a sociologist involves ethnographical, epistemological, and ideological that set sociologists with the dominant culture. Sociologists are attempted to analyze accurate and precise data through scientific methods that are as objective as possible, without any biases. They rely on careful recording of systematic observations and accumulative of data (Schaefer, 8-9).

    • Word count: 756
  22. Assess the extent to which class differences in educational attainment may be explained by the concept of ‘cultural capital’.

    This is because the particularistic values at home are the same as the universalistic values transmitted at school so they compliment each other. So what Bourdieu is saying is that people who are born as upper class have a distinct advantage over those from working class families. One of the factors that affect this advantage is speech. There are two different types of speech, restricted and elaborated. The working class tend to use restricted speech; this is a type of speech where reasoning isn't used just short answers without explanations and is very hard for someone who doesn't normally speak like that to understand it.

    • Word count: 757
  23. Discuss the role of Prior.

    'Mutism seems to spring form a conflict between wanting to say something, and knowing that if you do say it the consequences will be disastrous. So you resolve it by making it physically impossible for yourself to speak.' Rivers explains that for a private soldier the 'consequences' would be much worse that for an officer. Barker then uses mutism in order to show the class difference of opinions; that the upper classes could except and validate psychosomatic disorders whereas for the working class the 'illness has to be physical' in order to be taken seriously.

    • Word count: 698
  24. Britain During The Inter-war Years

    Suprisingly though Britain recovered quicker and more so than many of the other countries such as America, France and Belgium, it is argued that this was powered by residential construction and the newer developing industries against rearmament for the Second World War. In the depressed areas of Britain Scotland, Lancashire Northern Ireland and South Wales unemployment and poverty were common and part of everyday life. Most of these areas were working class where its inhabitants will have been employed in the dwindling industries such as shipping and textiles and at that time there was no alternative work available.

    • Word count: 871
  25. Critically Examine the view that factors to do with ‘the school’ that are mainly responsible for class differences in educational achievement

    This is without taking into account the social issues involving ethnicity. In the past, different ethnic groups in particular schools have been said to have a big impact on their class and effect of secondary educational achievement. It was believed that children from ethnic minority groups did tend to be allocated to lower level course, however it did not appear to influence their exam entry. On average, the children of the ethnic minority groups had much lower test results in school and these were the children who were said to have come from lower social classes.

    • Word count: 714

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