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AS and A Level: Sociological Differentiation & Stratification

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UK trends - gender

  1. 1 Men tend to outperform women in terms of income, wealth, promotion at work; they are more likely to have full time and /or permanent contracts.
  2. 2 In the home men do less housework than women and are much less likely to suffer domestic violence than women. Men are more likely to have control of finances and power in decision making in the family.
  3. 3 Women have better life chances in terms of life expectancy, preferential treatment by courts when awarding custody of children, some evidence of greater leniency in sentencing, more time off paid work with their children, lower suicide rates and are doing better in schools.

Key UK trends - social class

  1. 1 At work, those in the working class are more likely to have a below average paid job, a temporary contract and work part time.
  2. 2 In terms of policing and the criminal justice system, the working class are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police and to be arrested.
  3. 3 In the family people from working class backgrounds are more likely to marry younger and to get divorced.
  4. 4 In terms of health the working class are more likely, more likely to smoke, to miscarry their baby, to die of an accident at work and to die before their first birthday.
  5. 5 In education the working class are more likely to be placed in lower streams or sets at school, to leave school with fewer educational qualifications, and much less likely than the middle class to go to university.

Key UK trends - ethnicity

  1. 1 African Caribbean Britons are at high risk of being stopped and searched, getting longer custodial sentences, being excluded from school, being unemployed, living in a single parent family and achieving the lowest average GCSE scores.
  2. 2 British Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have the highest rates of poverty, living in cramped housing and female unemployment.
  3. 3 British Indians and British Chinese have higher than average educational success rates.
  4. 4 White Britons have better life chances than ethnic minorities in nearly all areas, with the exception of the British Indians and British Chinese.
  5. 5 There are significant differences WITHIN ethnic groups, so men and women, people from different social classes and ages have significantly different life chances.

  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
  • Peer Reviewed essays 5
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  1. Evaluate the View that the Socialisation Process that Produces Gender Inequality Continues both In and Outside the Workplace

    The former excuse can easily be dismissed when comparing examination results of male and female students as girls consistently outperform boys. The principal biological factor which limits women's choices is, quite simply, that only females can have babies. Women have to take time off to give birth and look after their young offspring, women often want to spend time with their children through all stages of their childhood, women generally take a larger slice of the responsibility of looking after their children than their partners; these factors all impact on what can be achieved in terms of career progression.

    • Word count: 2448
  2. Assess different explanations for the causes of poverty in the United Kingdom

    The poor are forced to work on a very low income, as this is their only option if they want to achieve a standard of living. This is purposely done, as the bourgeoisie know these people need a job in order to survive, and with they're being such a high demand for jobs any income will do. Clearly this results in a problem, as the wages are a bare minimum and it means they can only afford the essentials. This then links in to how we measure poverty, as these people may only be able to afford the basics.

    • Word count: 2168
  3. Discuss in what ways social class impacts on educational experiences.

    Those that successful passed attended the grammar or technical school. The tripartite system itself established a number of problems. This education based system was a major advantage to those from the middle classes. Sitting a formal assessment was something that the middle classes were more used to or had more experience in as they could afford to get private tutoring to help them gain exam practice. The exams language was middle class, ensuring that the majority of the success was more likely to come from the dominant classes. Between 1965 and 1979 the Labour Government tried to rectify these schooling problems by introducing a comprehensive school (a secondary school)

    • Word count: 2043
  4. Education social policy. Key changes in the development of education; such as the tri-partite system, comprehensive schools and the national curriculum shall be discussed, as well as the particularly significant acts of parliament that have shaped the ed

    and many people of the working class were unhappy with the new legislation. This is because at the time children were an 'economic' asset and could be sent out to work; which provided poorer families with some much needed additional income. Furthermore some employer were opposed to compulsory education also as children were profitable to employ; as they could be paid less. Despite this, the government continued to make provision for education; industrialisation had created the economic need for a more skilled workforce. In 1899 the school leaving age was raised to the age of twelve and the Balfour Education Act, which came in 1902, brought in the provision of secondary education for the 'deserving'.

    • Word count: 2068
  5. Identity Paper

    He was living in an apartment in New Brunswick when he met my mother. They began dating and fairly soon after they were married to keep my father from having to go back to Lebanon. Months after their legal marriage, they were married in front of a church and their families. But still until this day my mother's parents do not even know their true anniversary. A year and a half later, I was born. Even though in the Lebanese culture the daughters usually take their father's name as their middle name, my mother would not allow it because she thought it did not sound right and did not make sense in the American culture.

    • Word count: 2545
  6. Sociology: Identity

    High degree of immobility and interaction stimulated them attached into distinct social class. Isolated areas which had inadequate amenities including institutions and communication, subsequently conducted to social isolation, absence of community and suggested by Marx, the 'false class consciousness'. 'Industrial societies not only produce and distribute goods and services, they also produce and distribute information and entertainment.' Industrialism has created mass production as well as mass media (ibid, p370). Instant communication has made information available to the societies promptly, conveniently and precisely.

    • Word count: 2083
  7. Most sociologists do not believe there is any straight forward relationship between religion and social change.

    Weber argued that these ideas helped initiate Western economic development through the industrial revolution and capitalism. The obsessive work ethic and self discipline showed by Calvinists, inspired by a desire to serve God, meant that they reinvested, rather than spent their profits. Such attitudes were ideal for the development of capitalism. To a certain extent religion is a force for social change. Max Weber argued the influence of religious leaders can bring about social change. Weber argues that religious and other authority takes on three forms.

    • Word count: 2303
  8. Education and Social Inequality

    There has been big debates over this new scheme, many people believe that these new qualifications are worthless, in an article in the Mail online is says that two separate reports the new qualifications will do nothing for the career prospects for students in the future, that GCSE's and A 'levels are seen as higher qualifications than the diploma's even if they are the equivalent. To try and stop this from happening the government also included in the bill that schools and teachers will not be able to encourage brighter students to just take A 'levels but have to give them the option to choose.

    • Word count: 2215
  9. Hong Kong Wealth Gap

    Yet out of Hong Kong's seven million residents, an estimated 1.25 million people are living below the poverty line. You may ask what does the life of poor people look like. Well, nothing, they have nothing at all. Imagine you are living in a "cage home", a "flat" which can only let you sit and sleep, everyday you eat pot noodles for every meal, wear the same clothes and use the same towel without cleaning, how dirty is it! Besides, when you go to the street, people stand back from you because you are so dirty.

    • Word count: 2207
  10. Examine the extent to which husbands and wives now have a relationship based on equality

    * People are becoming more geographically mobile, moving to new locations when changing jobs which may open up different opportunities to manage the family. * The home has become more attractive, less crowded, improved plumbing and heating facilities, better home entertainment, fitted carpets and three-piece suites and improved household technology have helped promote family life and make it easier to live as a unit However this study has been largely criticised, mainly because the results are based on one question; 'Do you/does your husband help out at least once a week with any household jobs like washing up, helping with childcare etc'.

    • Word count: 2680
  11. Assess the causes and consequences of changes in the UK population

    The same then happened again for the Second World War and it then began to decrease again. In the late 80's and early 90's, the women born in the 1960's, a time where many females were born, then began to have children themselves, resulting in another minor baby boom. Since 2001 the birth rate steadily began to rise again and the rate in 2006 was the highest for 26 years. There are many reasons why the number of births in 2001 is lower than in 1901, including social, economic, cultural, legal, political and technological factors.

    • Word count: 2668
  12. Sociology of Education

    Obviously it would be na�ve to assume that social class is the only factor affecting educational outcomes as this does not take into account the affect of other issues such as ethnicity and gender. For example, according to National Statistics Online, when looking at 2004 exam results in terms of ethnicity, the lowest levels of GCSE attainment were among Black Caribbean pupils, particularly boys. (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=461). In terms of gender, 2001/02 exam results show that girls generally performed better than boys at GCSE and at GCE A level (or equivalent)

    • Word count: 2415
  13. Key Perspectives in Sociology

    Observations can be either participant or non-participant observations. During participant observations the researcher will join the group being studied, participate in their activities and generally adopt their way of life. The researcher can be participating overtly, where the group are aware of the researcher's presence, or covertly, where they go under cover. This can be an extremely effective way to source of information, especially those groups of people often difficult to reach such as religious sects and young offenders. During non-participant observations researchers merely observe and record information from a distance.

    • Word count: 2012
  14. Poverty and Health

    Although this notion of poverty is accepted by most sociologists as being applicable anywhere in the world, it has also been widely criticised for its assumption that people's basic needs are the same in all cultures and societies. Supporters of the 'relative poverty' theory argue that a definition must relate to the standards of a particular society at a particular time. During the 1960s and 1970s Peter Townsend carried out significant research into poverty and is a leading supporter in defining poverty in terms of relative depravation.

    • Word count: 2242
  15. Sociological Theories

    The two that we will be comparing and contrasting here will be Functionalism and Marxism. The Functionalist theory was first found by Auguste Comte (1798 - 1857) he developed this theory in an attempt to remedy the social unrest left by the French revolution in 1799. Functionalism wasn't really understood until it was further developed by Emile Durkheim (1858 - 1917). This theory was last theorised by the US sociologist Talcott Parsons (1902 - 1979) who developed it even further to the point it is at now.

    • Word count: 2080
  16. America's Freedom

    America was not only a new world in physical means; it was a world which had new, better rules. Freedom had been promised to all who were to step on its lands. Its constitution had spoken in a most loud and proud manner; "All men are created equal". Unfortunately, this truth was not visible, even in the cracks and nooks of society. In that time the people did not give attention to problems such as discrimination. In Bob Dylan's unpublished notes, he states; "It was too cold to be rebellious.

    • Word count: 2132
  17. Poverty and welfare models

    Townsend believed that poverty should be measured in terms of what the expectations of any society were. Townsend outlined the condition of relative poverty as follows: o 'Poverty can be defined objectively and applied consistently only in terms of the concept of relative deprivation... Individuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack these resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities and have the living conditions and amenities which are customary...

    • Word count: 2458
  18. Sociology independent project - mormons

    stated that he was disturbed by all the different denominations of Christianity and wondered which was true. In 1820, when he was 14, he went into the woods to pray concerning this and allegedly God the Father and Jesus appeared to him and told him not to join any of the denominational churches. Three years later, on Sept. 21, 1823, when he was 17 years old, an angel called Moroni, who was supposed to be the son of Mormon, the leader of the people called the Nephites who had lived in the Americas, appeared to him and told him that he had been chosen to translate the book of Mormon which was compiled by Moroni's father around the 4th century.

    • Word count: 2377
  19. sociological imagination

    In everyday language people may refer to the word 'society' as something that exists 'somewhere'. We talk about 'The British Society' for example. 'Society' in this tense therefore consists of individuals and these individuals have a connection in some sort of way, which then may relate to the word 'culture'. I will go into more detail about the connection between 'culture', 'society' and 'the individual' further on in my essay. "There is no such thing as society. There are only individuals and their families" (Thatcher). In relation to this quote, society is a generalised idea; you cannot think of a specific picture that illustrates the word 'society'.

    • Word count: 2139
  20. Free essay

    To what extent is educational achievement today, still affected by inequalities?

    can originally come from working class backgrounds, pupils can be elected into private schools via a scholarship or may have acquired their wealth via some form of lottery, but they may maintain their working class values and principles and lifestyle. Over the years the government has made various amendments to Education Acts, for example in Butler's 1944 Education Act free education was introduced for all children (Spartacus 1997), to encourage the diminishment of inequalities and therefore reduce the distinction between social classes.

    • Word count: 2041
  21. Is Religion Important to people in society

    My aim is to find out how important is religion to people in today's society. This is because religion affects different societies in different ways and different forms, causing the forms of society to change. Religion can be a driving force in society, but as a reactionary rather than a radical way. So I am going to find out how different people from different cultures react to religion under different circumstances. CONTEXT In 'The Elementary Forms of the Religious life' first published in 1912, Emile Durkhiem, a functionalist, presented what is probably the mist influential interpretations of religion.

    • Word count: 2222
  22. Outline and Assess the Usefulness of Conflict Theories in Explaining Social Class Inequalities in the Contemporary UK

    The ideology makes class positions appear just and fair. This leads to class inequality as the working class are unable to changes their class positions. The Marxist concept that the ruling class exploits their workers is present today. Examples such as Western rich company owners using sweatshops abroad where that can pay their workers next to nothing reflect this aspect of Marxist theory. It can be argued that Capitalism is now present on a global scale. The education system is one that can define the roles of people in later life.

    • Word count: 2687
  23. Gender Roles

    The pressure is evident with the rising anorexia and plastic surgery; the pressure from the media forces girls to go to extremes to look like images they see in the media. In the aspect of educational success, I am not surprised that more pressure has been put on girls. This is because there are becoming more jobs available for women that traditionally would be male dominated and also because all girls and boys get an equal opportunity within education. Girls feel pressurised to compete and do well because not only they may want to prove to men that they can

    • Word count: 2567
  24. sociology of education

    It makes an assumption that the values taught in school will automatically be embraced by students. In reality some students will and some won't. Also the values taught are ethnocentric and pupils from different cultures often reject and rebel against this. A functionalist view could also be criticised by suggesting all pupils are not offered an equal chance to succeed, and therefore education is not meritocratic. There is evidence which highlights working class pupils have a disadvantage and black pupils are labelled and discriminated against. Functionalism is too simplistic in its approach. It suggests the higher a pupil's level of achievement academically, there will follow a greater reward in the workplace with a better paid job.

    • Word count: 2040
  25. essay question sociology - education

    The value of equal opportunity is given when all students are made to sit in one class and give the same exam. Talent varies from person to person. All students strive to work hard and do well. Those who succeed are rewarded, and those who do not succeed realize that it is still just and alright as they had an equal opportunity. This is ho they explain differences in achievement. This does not apply solely to schools. This applies in society at large as well(example you are talented and hard working you will get a high status job).Schools are very

    • Word count: 2183

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the extent to which religion produces social change. Many sociologists such as functionalists and Marxists would argue that religion doesnt affect social change and is a conservative force.

    "In conclusion, many sociologists such as functionalists and Marxists would argue that religion doesn't affect social change and is a conservative force. Functionalists would say religious does this by keeping social solidarity in tact which prevents people needing a change; they also describe people of having a value consensus which is the shared beliefs in society which prevent social change. Marxists would argue that religion is ideological apparatus which distracts the working class from oppression and distracts people from seeing a need for social change. However internationalists would disagree as they see religion as causing radical changes such as the Calvinists being a major factor of the industrial revolution due to their similar ethics. Other sociologists would also argue that religion causes social change such as Neo-Marxist Gramsci, who claims religion is a relative autonomy and allows change to take place."

  • Identify & Discuss The Factors Which Will Influence A Researchers Choice Of Methods

    "In conclusion, there are many different viewpoints on how researchers should choose their methods when studying a topic. While both sides have their pro's and cons, either way can be used. Some circumstances call for one type of view to be used, for example Positivists, while another may need an Interpretivist viewpoint. Maybe a combination of the both can allow better results (triangulation)."

  • Discuss the view that conjugal roles are becoming joint in families.

    "In conclusion time provides the evidence in the last century that there has been a change in the conjugal roles meaning that they have become more equal which could be argued that this is due to the fact that more women are now in paid employment this has made a significant contribution to the way in which women are now portrayed as. They are seen to have a more equal status to men which has changed their position in the family. However this is debate is a complex one and it can also be argued that the equality of these conjugal roles depends a lot on age, class and ethnicity. Paman Sidhu"

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