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AS and A Level: Sociological Differentiation & Stratification
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UK trends - gender
- 1 Men tend to outperform women in terms of income, wealth, promotion at work; they are more likely to have full time and /or permanent contracts.
- 2 In the home men do less housework than women and are much less likely to suffer domestic violence than women. Men are more likely to have control of finances and power in decision making in the family.
- 3 Women have better life chances in terms of life expectancy, preferential treatment by courts when awarding custody of children, some evidence of greater leniency in sentencing, more time off paid work with their children, lower suicide rates and are doing better in schools.
Key UK trends - social class
- 1 At work, those in the working class are more likely to have a below average paid job, a temporary contract and work part time.
- 2 In terms of policing and the criminal justice system, the working class are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police and to be arrested.
- 3 In the family people from working class backgrounds are more likely to marry younger and to get divorced.
- 4 In terms of health the working class are more likely, more likely to smoke, to miscarry their baby, to die of an accident at work and to die before their first birthday.
- 5 In education the working class are more likely to be placed in lower streams or sets at school, to leave school with fewer educational qualifications, and much less likely than the middle class to go to university.
Key UK trends - ethnicity
- 1 African Caribbean Britons are at high risk of being stopped and searched, getting longer custodial sentences, being excluded from school, being unemployed, living in a single parent family and achieving the lowest average GCSE scores.
- 2 British Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have the highest rates of poverty, living in cramped housing and female unemployment.
- 3 British Indians and British Chinese have higher than average educational success rates.
- 4 White Britons have better life chances than ethnic minorities in nearly all areas, with the exception of the British Indians and British Chinese.
- 5 There are significant differences WITHIN ethnic groups, so men and women, people from different social classes and ages have significantly different life chances.
Assess the view that religious beliefs and practices are changing to reflect a new era of diversity and choice (33 marks)
Had it kept up with the growth population occurring at the same time there would be around 80,000 members of clergy. Davie also focuses on how this pattern is typical of Britain and Northern Europe even though there is a low level of attendance in attendance, people do still attend church for events such as funerals, weddings and baptisms. However there?s also been a decline in the number attending these, although the secularisation theory does focus on how church attendance for weddings and baptisms is higher in comparison to attending church regularly on Sundays. Bibby found results similar to Davie?s.
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and that universal proficiency in the English language must be part of the One Nation ideal, and called for a comprehensive strategy for integration, as has been adopted in many other European countries. Tolerance: The Queen has appealed for tolerance and understanding between cultural and religious groups in Britain's diverse society. She said religions were often in the news as "sources of difference and conflict", whereas they all bore messages of tolerance and respect. She also pointed out that diversity was strength, not a threat".
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- They have more money and are not deprived of material things. This will make them more likely to get in because they will be able to pay for the course more easily and pay for everything that is needed for the course. Therefore there will be nothing that the university will need to do for the student and are more likely to accept them than someone who is from a lower social class because they may have to get resources for that person.
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Boys confident about cars girls confident about food nutrition! Boys and girls also interpret tasks differently! Patricia Murphy 1991 set primary and lower secondary pupils open ended tasks e.g. design boats and vehicles and right adverts etc. boys designed it with weapons, little living accommodation whereas girls focused on social and domestic details Boys designed sports cars and army vehicles wqhereas girls designed family cars! Estate agent advert boys focused on masculine words such as garage space whereas girls focused on feminine space such as decor and kitchen design. This study shows girls and boys both interpret things differently even on thge same task. Girls = how people feel. Boys= how things are made to work.
- Word count: 2005
Functionalist would use an ?organic analogy? to explain functionalism. The ?organic analogy? is the comparison of society to the human body, for the human body to function idealistically all organs must function correctly. However, if an organ does not function correctly, it would have an effect on other organs; this would result in the rest of the body being affected. If an aspect of society such as education were not to function correctly, other aspect would be affected. Functionalism is a non-conflict theory where society creates consensus to function.
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As well as people with a religious faith there are many who are not committed to any religious tradition. These include people who would define themselves as being entirely secular or as atheist, but also those who might describe themselves as not being formally ?religious? but would nonetheless see life as having a spiritual dimension. Everyone in the UK has ?the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion?; and ?freedom, either alone or in community with others, and in public or in private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance?.
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Without these symbols there would be no human interaction and human society. Symbolic interaction is necessary since humans have no instincts to direct their behaviour. Mead recognized that people had the capacity to reflect on their own actions. This is because everyone has a self which consists of two parts: the ?I? is the reflective part that plans actions and evaluates our actions; the ?Me? is part of the self that exists for others in interactions such as roles. For people to engage in interaction, they must understand symbols and reflect on their own performance, but must also take on role of others.
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It is about who gets what, how they get it and why they get it. (www.sociology.org.uk). Inequality is typically tied to race, gender and class, with white, males, those with higher education levels, and those with higher incomes sit at the top of the hierarchy. (Haralambos. M, Holborn. M, 2000, Themes and Perspectives of Sociology). However, all these are viewed from different perspectives such as Marxism and Functionalism etc. Whilst both theories have some similarities, they are very different in their interpretation.
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In addition to the work of Bourdieu, is the work of internationalist Douglas. Douglas concluded that a key factor in differences between classes is as a result of parental interest, - similarly to Bourdieu, due to the culture of the home. Douglas however observed that it was middle class parents who showed a greater interest in their child?s education and where most likely to attend parents evenings, which in combination with the convergence of class achievement at GCSE level provides a compelling case for home culture influencing most, the difference in educational achievement between classes.
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It?s important that everyone gets to choose what they do so they can fulfil theirs need. Also in the case study it states that A dietician advises the centre on meals, and everyone eats the same so that they have a balanced diet. This may not be satisfactory for some individuals as they may be either, vegetarians, vegans, lactose intolerant or may even have an allergic reaction to certain products of foods, it is important that the dietician includes the needs of others. Also in the case study there is a man that the staff have nicknamed ART as they cant pronounce his name and he doesn?t speak much English, they say that they have learnt his needs so need little communication.
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