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Human Geography Notes - examples of policies designed to manage population change.

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Introduction

´╗┐Population policies are used by countries to try and achieve optimum population and there are four types: ANTI-NATAL= discourages births because you are worried about over population and its effects E.g. China and Singapore PRO-NATAL= encourages births because you fell that you do not have enough people in your country E.g. France TRANSMIGRATION= if you have parts of your country that are overcrowded and other parts that are virtually empty you might try and even things out a bit E.g. Indonesia IMMIGRATION= you do not want to have open borders even if you are under populated because you could end up with lots of people who will drain your resources rather than help your country - all countries have immigration controls of some kind E.g. Australia (very strict!) CHINA ANTI-NATAL when was the policy introduced? The 'One Child Policy' was introduced in 1979 and although it was designed as a temporary measure it still continues today. Why? Mao, the ruler between 1950 and 1959 said that "the more people, the stronger we are" and " a large population gives a strong nation". This resulted in China becoming overpopulated and its resources seriously stretched. This led to a famine in 1959 where 20 million people died. Despite this famine, China's population continued to grow by 55 million a year. ...read more.

Middle

- In 1966 they established the Family Planning and Population Board, which was responsible for providing clinical services and public education on family planning - In 1970, abortion and voluntary sterilization was legalised - In 1969 the 'Stop at Two' policy was introduced - In 1986 the 'Three or More if you can afford it' policy was introduced Why? Since the mid 1960's Singapore's population grew due to falling death rates, high birth rates and high immigration. The Singapore governments saw rapid population growth as a threat to the living standrsa, education and health services and political stability of the country. Between 1969 and 1972, a set of policies known as population disincentives were introduced to raise the costs of bearing third, fourth and subsequent children. Has it been efftective? Perhaps the 'Stop at Two' policy was too effective............ Fertility declined throughout the 1970's, reaching below the replacement level to 1.006 in 1975, and declining further thereafter. By the 1980's, the government had become concerned with the low rate of population growth and with the relative failure of the most highly educated citizens to have children. Have there been any recent changes to the policy? In 1986 the government decided to replace the 'Stop at Two' policy with 'Have Three or More, if you can afford it' and now, as a result, the TFR is 1.9. ...read more.

Conclusion

Insteas it has lead to destruction of the rainforest, fighting between the migrants and indigenous people and has not aided the development of Indonesia's economy. Have there been any recent changes to the policy? It has been quietly dropped (but not offically!) as it does not appear to be carrying on - this is most likely due to the costs involved. AUSTRALIA IMMIGRATION Why do they have a strict policy? Australia has such a strict immigration policy as they do not want to end up with lots of people who will drain their resources rather than help the country. They also believe that "working in Australia is a privileg, not a right". How does it work? - People are legible for a visa if they have partners, children, parents and other family members who are Austarlian citizens - If you have certain skills that would help the country (electrician, builder, radiographer, paediatrician, accountnat, computing professional etc.) you may also be able to become a migrant - Australis has very strict rules for people wanting to enter the country when they are not citizens or don't have a visa. For example, in October 2001, Australia failed to send a search party for a boat carrying 397 asylum seekers that sank suddenly in the waters between Java and Christmas Islands because they didn?t want them coming to Australia. Two Indonesian fishing boats eventually arrived and managed to rescue 44 survivors - 353 people drowned. ...read more.

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