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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Potential hazards and injuries in sport.

    3 star(s)

    Name 5 sports and list the protective clothing required for each Hockey - shoes, pads, helmet, gum shields Football - shin pads, and football boots Fencing - Helmets, padding, gloves, the suit Cricket - Pads, gloves, helmet Basketball - basketball shoes, sometimes knee and arm pads 4. Injury - below is a list the most common occurring injuries (internally caused and externally caused). Label each whether they are internal or external and provide a definition of each * Stress fracture (internally)

    • Word count: 587
  2. Explaining fitness requirements for achieving excellence in cheerleading

    <-- TOE TOUCH JUMP Balance is the ability to keep control of your body at all times. When doing cheerleading, you will need balance because you may have to stand on one foot in some routines. Sometimes you may even be in the air so if you have no balance you will fall over and cause injury to yourself. This applies to landing too; you could be thrown up to 20 meters in the air and if you don't land with stability you could do serious damage.

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  3. PEP. The sport I have chosen to base my PEP on is hockey.

    Coordination 5. Pushing Weaknesses: 1. Speed 2. Muscular Strength 3. Hitting 4. Balance 5. Ariel Warm Ups: 1. 2 minutes jogging at a gentle speed. Static stretches starting from the neck and upper body. Play netball with a tennis ball or just throwing to each other. 2. 2 minutes jogging at a gentle speed. Dynamic stretches for 10 meters then jog back to starting point. Sprints being called by someone else. 3. 2 minute jog on a treadmill Static stretches throughout body starting at the head. Sessions: 1. Weight Training a) Squat thrust- thirty seconds, one-leg squat (left leg)- 10 reps, T press up- 30 seconds, one-leg squat (right leg)-10 reps, Bicycles- 30 seconds, jumping lunge- 30 seconds.

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  4. Introduction to PEP. My aim is to improve my anaerobic fitness for the sport I play which is hockey and I will do this by creating a 6 week program of all the different sports and exercises that I do each day.

    This is training in intervals of hard exercise with rest breaks. The rest period will be a brisk walk at a speed of 4.4 mph and will last for 1 minute. The working period will be a sprint at a speed of 9.6 mph and will also last for one minute. I will complete this session in 15 minutes. I will increase these speeds during the 6 weeks. The reason why I think interval training would be good for me is because it would help me to improve my overall performance, including speed.

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  5. There are many different training methods that you can use to improve your cardiovascular endurance.

    This will also help you keep you fit during the holidays. Fartlek Training The name comes from the Swedish which means "speed play." Fartlek Training involves different changes of speed, so this means doing different cardiovascular activities at different paces. You have to work for around 30 minutes then take a break. Despite the different speeds which you go at, you have to vary the level of land (slopes, ramps etc). Doing Fartlek training will help improve both aerobic and anaerobic training depending on the training you are doing. This type of training will help with sports which need both aerobic and anaerobic such as: basket ball and soccer.

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  6. Sporting role models - how Chloe may be inspired to lead an active lifesyle.

    * Spectators, clubs, extra curriculum activities are a great way of SOCIALLY getting her used to the environment, this way she can also make new friends and meet new people. Making resources easier for Chloe, her parents or teachers could make it easier for her by organizing clubs, events and organizations.

    • Word count: 370
  7. Sport nutrition P3, P4, M1

    Protein are complex molecules, the body takes longer to break them down. As a result, they are a much slower and longer lasting source of energy than carbohydrates. Fats are the slowest source of energy but the most energy efficient. Each gram of fat supplies the body with about 9 calories this is more than proteins or carbohydrates. Measuring requirements Body composition is the most commonly used classification for an individual's bodies shape and size. There are three body types, even though a individual will not fit in the body type perfectly it is still a excellent method of classifying there body shape.

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  8. pep. Bob is a obese individual, who doesnt do hardly any exercise at all. He plays no sports. And has a very unbalanced diet. In this personal exercise plan, I am going to work on improving Bobs cardiovascular endurance (stamina) and muscular endur

    The five principles are: Specificity; is to ensure that training relates to your sport/needs. Progression; is to make sure you gradually increase the intensity of exercise over your plan. Overload; is where you do one session a week when you are pushing your body to the absolute maximum. Reversibility; we need to ensure this doesn't occur in our plan. Reversibility is where you stop training, and your muscles begin to atrophy. Tedium; is where you change the training so the participator doesn't get bored.

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  9. The tripod of feeling good

    To have a good combination you have to think about how much you exercise and plan your meals around that. If you train much you need more energy; you should therefore eat many carbohydrates and less protein and vegetables, since carbohydrates is the richest energy source. When you are loading for a contest you should upload with slow carbohydrates, like pasta or potatoes, which is stored as glycogen in your muscles and liver until you competing. And after a competition is it important to refill your glycogen storage by eat or drinking something with fast carbohydrates, such as a banana or sports drink.

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  10. Warm Ups - reasons to do them and how it affects the body.

    This lubricating fluid allows the ends of the bones to slide smoothly and absorbs shocks. Mobility exercises must be controlled, continuous and smooth. Avoid jerky or flinging movements. A warm up should mobilise all the joints to be used (usually ankles, knees, hips, spine, shoulder, neck, elbows and wrist). Many mobility exercises can be performed whilst moving and can be combined with activities that raise the pulse. Examples include shoulder or arm circles, bending and straightening wrists and elbows. Phase 2 - Pulse Raising Exercise This is any activity that increases the heart rate steadily, not suddenly.

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  11. Jogging for muscular endurance program coursework

    * Jogging is a good way of relieving stress. My jogging programme This will be my weekly programme; I will be following this for 6 weeks. To monitor the effects of my program I will perform a timed jog before I start the programme and at the end of the programme to see if I have made progress or not. Type Time Distance Location Stimulation Monday Continuous 1 hour Road Walkman Tuesday Rest Day Wednesday Continuous 2 miles Park Dog Thursday Continuous 1 hour Road Music Friday Rest Day Saturday Fartlek 2.5 miles Park Partner Sunday Rest Day Clothing * You will need well-cushioned shoes that are designed for jogging.

    • Word count: 498
  12. Weight training program coursework

    When using weights to develop muscular strength, all work should be at, or near maximum capability in the exercise being performed, and the number of repetitions performed in each set should be low. At lest 8-10 reps at 60-80 per cent of maximum capability. To develop muscular endurance the number of repetitions needs to be much higher than when exercising for muscular strength. This requires between 15-20 repetitions of each exercise to be performed at around 30-40 per cent of maximum capability.

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  13. training program and s.p.o.r.t

    and make alterations if I need to. I will record my results and analyze them. As we have 1 lesson a week, I should be able to keep up with the fitness and not slack during the week. Then after 7 days I will have to do it again, so my body will start to get used to it.) To improve my body fitness, I will have to work very hard. Overall I will improve my strength, speed and stamina.

    • Word count: 688
  14. Leadership in PE

    that's why he manages a football team and he was also a footballer himself I think that Arsene Wenger has more knowledge than Mr cook because he manages a top team and he was a footballer before he managed a football team Activity Structure Mr cook starts with a warm up then a skill introduction and a conditioned game the we play a normal game and after that we warm down Usually he would tell the training coach to start them off with a warm up then focus on a skill and probably play a match after Arsene Wenger is

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  15. rules, observation and analysis

    Cool down: After we are done from our activity we cool down. We do this because: * It returns the heart rate to normal resting point. * It returns the body to its natural status. (pre exercise state) * It helps to remove waste products from your muscles, such as lactic acid, which can build up during vigorous activity. Cardiovascular exercise: Cardiovascular exercise is a type of exercise that involves oxygen consumption by the body to create energy for the muscles being worked. Cardiovascular exercise helps your body's organs that are in charge of moving gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, nutrients and any waste products to and from cells do this more efficiently.

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  16. GCSE Coursework

    So it is vital to be prepared nutritionally. 3. To be in the right mental state is important as you are focused on the task ahead of you. If something else is bothering you, your performance can be affected as your focus isn't spot on. Therefore you should have a clear, focused, and prepared mind going into a contest. Describe 3 factors which affect performance in a negative way; 1. Low level of confidence can affect performance in a negative way because you go into the task believing that the other person will beat you.

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  17. netball weaknesses

    BOUNCE PAST Nicolette's bounce pass is very weak because she uses at the wrong time she uses when the player is far away form her she should use it when a player is in front of her so she can pass around the players body.

    • Word count: 268
  18. Nutrition For A Basketball Player

    Complex carbohydrates as refined starches are found in: * biscuits, pastries and cakes * pizzas * sugary processed breakfast cereals * white bread * white flour * white pasta * White rice. Simple carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars. They also exist in either a natural or refined form. Natural sugars are found in fruit and vegetables. Refined sugars are found in: * biscuits, cakes and pastries * chocolate * honey and jams * jellies * brown and white cane sugar * pizzas * prepared foods and sauces * soft drinks * sweets and snack bars.

    • Word count: 663
  19. Personal Exercise program

    Tuesday Today I did 5 sets of 20 bicep curls using three kilogram weights in each hand. However I don't think I managed to reach the overload. I also had a Rugby training session today at the Bahrain Rugby Football Club. We did a lot of fitness training in today's session e.g. We had a partner relatively the same size as us and we had to carry them on our backs across the field then back again then we would swap and do the same again.

    • Word count: 950
  20. GCSE PE 1+2

    1h 50% Tuesday PE Lesson 1h 50% Wednesday PE Lesson, Running 2h 60% Thursday Football after school (with mates) 1h45 60% Friday PE lesson 1h 50% Saturday Sunday 4 As a result of my tests I have identified that I am weak in important areas of my sport and need to improve these to become a better footballer. 5 When planning my training there are many factors I need to take into consideration 'S.P.O.R.T.F.I.T.T'; Specific: Making sure that the training is suitable to the sport that you play. Eg. Muscular endurance to football. Progression: to ensure that each time you train, your results improve.

    • Word count: 608
  21. Observation sheet

    ? Racquet held in right position ? ? ? ? Correct grip on the racquet ? ? Shuttlecock hit below waist ? ? ?

    • Word count: 86
  22. PE BTEC Unit 10 - P2

    Home With others Dinner Chicken pie 1 185 185 Potato 1 120 120 Peas 1 71 71 376 Friday 21:30 Home with others Dinner pizza 1 800 800 Salad 1 150 150 950 Saturday 08:30 Home with others Drink black coffee with sugar 1 5 5 12:00 Town with others Snack Cream cakes 4 100 400 20:00

    • Word count: 394
  23. what skills are needed in football

    Dribbling - Start with the ball at your feet, dribble up and down around 10 - 15 meters to get use to the ball. - Start with the ball at your feet, you will hear three numbers called out randomly and not in any particular order, there are three numbers, for example 1, 2 and 3, when 1 is called out you will dribble with the ball but at a walking pace, when 2 is called out you will dribble with the ball but at a jogging pace and when 3 is called out you will dribble with the ball but at a sprinting/running pace.

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  24. Preparation for Sport Assignment 3

    If the demands made on the performer are too sharp in increase, the overload principle could possibly result in injury. Overload - If an athletes body experiences the same intensity or stress each time they train, their performance will mot improve. In order for changes to take place and improvements to be made, it is essential that you keep increasing the level of challenge.

    • Word count: 449
  25. PE analysis of performance

    I have more agility because I run in a position where I can side-step relatively easily. I tend to tackle low, and run low when I am carrying the ball so it is more difficult to be tackled. I think that when we are playing I stay positive even if we are losing and try to motivate the team. I need to get a bit lower when I am running with the ball, if I want to get further, but I run low enough to gain a reasonable distance and I am able to shrug off tackles when running if I am aggressive.

    • Word count: 902

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare the fitness requirements of three public services.

    "To conclude my analysis of the fire services physical fitness test has featured all the main tests used by the fire service and tried to explain why they have been chosen. The number of job related tests are considerable when compared to other public services I have investigated. With this in mind I feel that, although the tasks in the training period are well thought and structured, there should be some sort of physical tests done by all fire fighters to constantly evaluate their fitness levels. My recommendation would be to have these tests once a year and fire fighters who fail to meet the standard would complete the probationary training period again to prove their motivation and commitment to the important role they play in the public service industry."

  • The Shows in the Coliseum Were Blood Thirst but Noble Contests. To What Extent is this a fair description of Gladiatorial Fights?

    "Gladiatorial shows, were often accompanied by souvenirs and the like, which in my opinion degrades Gladiators from noble sportsmen, to lifeless entertainers. This paired with the fact that they were often hired as entertainment at a dinner party, takes away the nobility. Also taking away from the nobleness is that there were non-related, less noble activities associated with, and inspired by Gladiatorial fights, gambling and prostitution to name but two. Gladiatorial shows were often considered by the emperor as a political weapon to manipulate the people, which is a shame. To conclude by today's standards the shows do seem extremely blood thirsty and due to this not noble. However in Rome, Blood and nobility were not necessarily contradictions, the Gladiatorial shows were certainly not as bloodthirsty as certain other forms of Roman entertainment, e.g. the midday executions. The fights themselves as a formal sport seem quite noble, but when looked at from the perspective of cult entertainment the nobility is lessened. In the gladiator fights the main focus was on skill and not blood. Although death was of course a possibility, the likelihood is that the majority of the time a good gladiator would live to die another day."

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