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GCSE: Exercise and Training
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What to think about when planning a warm up activity
- 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
- 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
- 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
- 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
- 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.
Why are warm ups important?
- 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
- 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
- 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
- 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
- 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).
Flexibility as part of a warm up
- 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
- 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
- 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
- 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
- 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.
In this program I am going to train to improve my fitness in football, the factors of fitness I am going to work on are strength and endurance.
and I have no injuries or health problems, I do a lot of exercise in school and at home to maintain this level of fitness e.g. At home I do a 30-60 minute workout each night which involves skipping, press ups, weights, and hitting a punch bag. At school I play football at break times and I participate in P.E twice a week. In the bleep test I got 11.2 and I hope to improve on this after the program.
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The reasons I have chosen these exercises are to show what components I am trying to use that will benefit my performance in Basketball. The arm exercises: press ups, clap press ups and chin ups are to build up my arm strength so that both my passes and shots are stronger and I can shoot from a different range instead of the same. The running exercises: shuttle runs and jog around a marked area are obviously for the improvement in my aerobic respiration and fitness, because in Basketball, you are more or less doing shuttle runs at a fairly rapid pace.
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Lungs are also involved in this so another name for cardio-vascular endurance is cardio respiratory endurance. Most of the instruments I am going to use are from the gym. The instruments I am going to use to develop my cardio-vascular endurance are: Upright bike, recumbent bike, treadmill and steeper. The instruments I am going to use to develop my strength are: Chest press, bicep curls, tricep curls and shoulder press. For my P.E.P I don't have to use the gym.
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Speed - There is a lot of speed needed in hockey, for quick sprints and diagonal runs. ?? Strength - To push/hit the ball which more strength and make it go a further distance. ?? Co-ordination - Co-ordination is very important in hockey. There are many things you need co-ordination for. I.e. to pass the ball with a degree of accuracy, to dribble and beat a player, for good ball control. ?? Reaction time - So you can stop the ball when it comes towards you at a high speed.
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I have 8 stations where I will exercise and practise new skills. I will carry out a different exercise at each station for 30 seconds. Circuit training will improve my muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, and my speed and agility. It is important that each station works a different muscle group so that one group does not get over worked and cause damage. Circuit training is a training method which I feel will prove very good on improving my endurance and stamina. In the fitness tests I expect there will be a lot of difference when it comes to things like strength testing because of the gender related hormones produced by different sexes.
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I want to improve my stamina generally because it is important in any sport (Tennis, badminton, football, basketball). This circuit will also improve my health because although it has specific exercises it also has exercise such as sit ups and press ups which will make my arms and stomach stronger. Awareness of safety aspects Before I perform my circuit I need to: * Check the floor for any harmful objects such as glass, pins etc. * Check the floor for any spillages so I do not slip and get injured * Tie long hair back * Wear trainers with appropriate
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to turn completely to make a follow though so that the body can then clear the way for the club, also allows straighter and more accurate shots. Balance: To be able to hold the golf swing and follow-through posture for the amount of time needed for the ball to come to rest, vital skill but I appreciate the fact that this is very hard to improve. Co-ordination: To be able to focus on the ball and to get the head of the golf club on plane and to hit the ball in a striking area, which is different for all
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Even those footballers who want to gain weight will harm their performance by increasing body fat too much. My clients result was 12.4 which compared to the norm tables is good. Compared to the rest of the group my clients result was superior. Regarding football I would say that the ideal body composition would be between 9% and 12% so my client was a shade outside. I think that the result my client got is good enough to perform to a high standard as a footballer. The absolute perfect body fat percentage for football does not exist. Age and gender make a big contribution to the ideal value, but most importantly everyone is an individual.
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As levels of performance rise, the frequency of training is often increased. Top performers need to train most days, particularly long distance runners who need to run considerable distances in training to improve their aerobic capacity. Intensity Raising the workload increases intensity. This means that you would have to run faster, lift heavier weights or stretch farther than normal during training. These increases would be built up over a period of time. Duration How long the training sessions takes place is determined by the activity and the fitness of the person. Untrained athletes may only be able to work for a few minutes when they are starting a new event.
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This is because by doing press up it will make the bicep and abdominal muscle work stronger. As they will be more power in your arm, you will be able to hit the ball harder than you used to. Another reason why I choose press up is that when you are fielding next to the boundary line and the ball come towards you, because of having increased strength in the arm, you will be able to throw back the ball longer and faster, this could lead to a run out or saving vital runs.
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By shooting and also jogging my muscles will relax so I can end the warm up. Personal Profile: I can now write my own personal profile. My age is 15, my weight is 68 and my height is 1.73. My current fitness level; I can run up to 400m. but will get tired and won't be able to run another 400m. The sport that I do is badminton. I need to improve my arm strength a lot so that I can hit and pass quicker. I also need to improve my speed so that I can run around a lot.
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Co-Ordination can be tested by seeing how well someone can pick up a skill involving lots of co-ordination, such as juggling. Agility -This is the ability to change body position or direction of the body rapidly. This ability is measured with running tests that require the subject to turn or start and stop. Agility is also influenced by balance, coordination, position of center of gravity, running speed and skill. This is definitely needed in ice dance so you can perform elements with flow and control giving them a better quality.
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Speed - This is the ability to perform a movement in as shortest time possible. This is essential in tennis for example to be able to sprint after a ball at the other side of the court (drop shot for example). Agility - This is the ability to change direction quickly and the ability to change and control the movements of your body. This is needed to be able to change direction quickly while the ball is in play, as you are not expecting where the next ball is going within the court.
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Don't over stretch. Slight pain is normal. You should feel the muscle stretch. However, you should not feel any severe or stabbing pains. If you do, stop immediately. Breath normally during these exercises as there is no need to hold your breath during the stretch. Repeat each stretch several times, and hold for several seconds. Technique: It is extremily important you have the correct technique whilst running as this this too avoids injuries. The following page illustrates the correct technique for my training programme: The Running Technique: Relaxed head, neck, arms and shoulders.
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When doing weights I might do 10 reps of 15Kgrams but increase to 25 reps of 25Kgrams. My appropriate grading of the programme is to do something not to hard and not to easy, also not doing small activities. The relevance of my program is to run out to the ball for about 2-3 minutes but then run back. My fitness training is that I play every Saturday basically for training where I will be doing weights and anaerobic training. On Sundays I will play a match against other teams. Sometimes I might play football on Fridays or Saturdays with my brother and his friends who are about 17 or 18.
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Playing as hooker the main muscle groups, main energy production system and typical recovery times used are: * Your upper body muscles i.e. biceps triceps sacrospinalis trapezius deltoids and pectorals * Leg muscles i.e. quadriceps gastrocnemus * We usually work our aerobic systems * The usual recovery times are roughly 10-30 seconds. Whilst constructing my exercise programme I will keep referring back to the FITT principles. These principles are: F- Frequency of activity- how often we should exercise. For example if you just want to stay healthy you should exercise for at least twenty minutes twice a week.
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* Increasing the frequency- by training more often, e.g. 1 or 2 times a week to 3 or 4 times a week. * Increasing the duration- by training longer and longer to prolong the demands. Both sets of players (rugby and football) will need to use this sort of training a lot because the demands in these two sports are very high and the training during pre-season must be gradually increased because both sports are very demanding. 3. Progression means that as the body adapts to training it progresses to a new level of fitness Three important points about this graph: 1.
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The importance of shoes in training is simply to stabilize you feet and improve you balance. To find a good shoe is totally up to you but remember that you need a shoe that fits the all parts of achieving fitness. Gloves are used by a wide variety of athletes to help protect their hands and improve their grip while working with weights. Wrist straps go hand and hand with gloves; straps are fastened around your wrist and then twisted around a weight bar to effectively strengthen your grip. Knee straps are one of the most vital pieces of equipment, having straps round your knees when doing heavy exercises that involve a lot of strength raises the hydrostatic pressure within the joint and helps to prevent joint and ligament injury.
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I will need to use the power efficiently. Component Fitness Test Result Compared with national results Muscular Endurance Ab-bleep test level 7 good Dynamic Strength 1 and 3/4 mile run 9:06 mins good Power Vertical jump 46 cm good/excellent I have chosen to take the ab-bleep again to try and improve the overall level of the sit ups. My prediction is that if I do stick strictly to my exercise plan I will be able to move on to level 9 or 10. As I excel in the training my overall fitness will improve including my technique and skill.
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If a midfielder was fully fit and had a good game they would cover approximately 6400 metres in the first half and 6000 metres in the second half. 28% of this would be walking and 26% would be sprinting, the rest would be jogging at a range of different paces. This is because a central midfielder needs to sit behind the forwards to support them when their team is attacking but also needs to sit infront of the defense and try and regain the ball when their team is defending.
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* blood pressure * muscle function * shoulder abduction * aerobic fitness Levels of physical activity were calculated based on a combination of duration, frequency and intensity (with activities and sports assigned an intensity rating of light, moderate and vigorous) and presented on an 'activity level scale'. The scale was related to optimum targets from deriving a health benefit and the proportion of the population in different groups falling below these target levels was identified. This survey provided us with the following two statements; "80% of adults perceive themselves to be physically active" "> 30% of men and 60% of women cannot maintain a walking speed of 3mph when walking up a moderate (5%)
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METHODS I AM GOING TO USE I AM GOING TO USE THE METHODS BELOW: CIRCUIT TRAINING- THIS IS WHERE YOU HAVE DIFFERENT STATIONS TO WORK AT. THIS IS LESS BORING BECAUSE YOU ARE ALWAYS CHANGE WHAT YOU ARE DOING AND YOU CAN ALSO CHANGE THE FOCUS POINT AT WHICH THE TRAINING IS FOCUSED ON. YOU CAN ALSO INCLUDE SOME WEIGHT TRAINING WITHIN THIS WHICH I WOULD LIKE TO DO BECAUSE YOU NEED STRENGTH IN RUGBY. FARTLEK TRAINING WHICH IS A TYPE OF CONTINUES TRAINING WHERE IT IS NONE STOP FOR THE AMOUNT OF TIME YOU ARE WORKING FOR.
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Queensland Senior Physical Education, Macmillan Education Australia, South Yarra, Australia.) The types of feedback used in my coaching program were: * Knowledge of performance-general performance - this was used for the early stage of my coaching program when I needed a clear picture in my head to compare my actual performance with, eg. correct stance when serving. This type of feedback was provided to me by the coach, teacher and/or fellow participants in my program. I also watched my performances on video so I actually saw where I was going wrong and could then work on my motor skills.
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As the games are 80 minutes long for my age, I will need to have a high endurance. I will need to be agile, so that I can quickly change from one direction to another. On the right of midfield, you will often have to dribble down the wing. If you are agile, you will find it a lot easier to beat the opposition. There are other components that are used in football, but the components above are the main ones.
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Ski-Jumps - Stand by the side of a bench then jump to the alternate side - This will improve Muscular Endurance and will involve my gastrocnemius, hamstrings and quadriceps 8. Skipping - Do fast skipping with cross-overs - This will improve Cardiovascular Endurance and involves my heart 9. Biceps Curls - With a heavy weight in your hand bend your elbow and bring in your arm towards your body, flexing your bicep muscle - This will improve Muscular Endurance and involves my biceps Each week I will increase my circuit by...
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