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GCSE: Exercise and Training
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What to think about when planning a warm up activity
- 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
- 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
- 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
- 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
- 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.
Why are warm ups important?
- 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
- 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
- 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
- 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
- 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).
Flexibility as part of a warm up
- 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
- 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
- 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
- 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
- 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.
He earned $9,188,321 on the PGA TOUR and broke the PGA TOUR record of $6,616,585 that he set in 1999. In 2000, Woods matched the record of Ben Hogan in 1953 in winning three professional major championships in the same year. Hogan won the Masters, U.S. Open and British Open. In winning the British Open, Woods became the youngest to complete the career Grand Slam of professional major championships and only the fifth ever to do so. Tiger also was the youngest Masters champion ever, at the age of 21 years.
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This PEP will be specifically done to improve upper and lower body strength. Progression can be monitored by checking amount of weights used and amount of reps done in resistance training, and checking amount of exercises done in circuits, i.e. 15 press-ups in 30seconds during first session, 30 press-ups in 30seconds during last session. This plan is going to start 4 weeks later than planned, instead of starting on the 10th November 2003; it will start at the beginning of December. This is purely because of the fasting month. WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5 WEEK 6 MONDAY Resistance Training: 25kg bicep curls, bench press for 1hour, 1min rest between each rep.
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I used intensity to increase how hard I trained e.g. pushing myself to the limit. I used type to vary the training I was doing, e.g. one day I would go swimming to raise my cardio vascular fitness and the next day I would be in the gym doing some resistance training. And finally I used the principle of training, time, to increase the duration of the session in order so that I would benefit and improve, e.g. as my training schedule went on, I increased the amount of time I was training for. Methods of Training The methods of training that I used throughout my training schedule were continuous, interval, resistance and circuit.
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Chris became a costumed runner in 1985 when he ran his second Examiner Bay to Breakers 12K road race covered in real flower leis. The next year, donned in hula-skirt and homemade carnation leis, Hula man made his debut. He has returned in an assortment of colourful outfits every year since, but the hula-skirt and leis remain his trademark guise. A costume contest prizewinner in over a dozen races, he takes being a comic costume runner very seriously. Once he carried a 35-pound replica of a London phone booth 12 kilometres while dressed as the "Phantom of the Operator."
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Action Plan - I am going to create a plan in order to improve my weaknesses within the game of netball.
These happen quite often, normally monthly. I am specifically fit for dancing. This is an extension of general fitness; it is necessary if the activity is particularly demanding and if the performer is competing at a high level. The areas of specific fitness needed for dancing are mainly flexibility and strength. Dancers will be able to provide a more pleasing performance because increased flexibility will enable them to be more expressive and movements will be performed with greater ease. Body posture is important for a dancer and therefore increased flexibility helps to improve your posture, so that your body is held in the correct position.
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A side wins the rally by hitting the shuttle to the floor on the opponent's side of or if the opponent fails to keep the shuttle in play. The shuttle is declared out of play if it fails to cross the net, lands out of the court or hits the ceiling of the venue. A rally is also lost if a fault is committed. A fault is called if a player touches the net during play with either body or racquet, hits the shuttle before it comes across the net or is hit by the shuttle.
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I will also look into the physiological changes that occur in the organs and at cellular level. Prediction The purpose of my experiment was to prove that the null hypothesis was incorrect, and that there is a significant difference in the VO2 max after training at altitude. In order for VO2 max to increase, there must be an increase in oxygen carrying pigments, therefore I predict that there will be an increase in the production of red cells. Before I carry out the experiment I will talk about factors that affect fitness.
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If the apparatus hasn't passed its safety check, it would dangerous and whoever hadn't checked the equipment would be held liable. For the purpose of basketball, appropriate clothing should be worn; this consists of basketball shorts and a vest top. Basketball trainers with high ankle supports will minimise the risk of ankle injuries. Before participating in a game of basketball, it is very important to start with a warm up, as this will also reduce the risk of any injuries due to cold muscles and joints.
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This will be applied to my PEP as the change of activities will keep me interested and motivated. Training Methods Circuit Training Circuit training is a method of training. A circuit usually has 8 to 15 stations, where at each station a different exercise is carried out for a certain amount of time. Circuit training can improve muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, aerobic fitness, muscular strength, speed and agility. A circuit-training program may also be designed for a certain sport. Circuits for this purpose will include exercises to improve all the muscles and skills associated with the sport.
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I am intending to fit in my four other varied PEP sessions around my non-PEP activities. I have to do this carefully taking into account the necessary principles of training. These principles are: - Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Individual needs, Systematic & Metabolic (SPORISM). - Frequency, Intensity, Type & Time (FITT). If I get any of these principles wrong I could end up with a serious injury by doing too much work (Overload) or on the other end of the spectrum not progressing by not doing enough training (Reversibility). Taking FITT into account I felt four sessions is enough to benefit me fully but also not enough so that I will be physically drained and tired, therefore unfit to continue with the programme.
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We keep going until we can no-longer keep up with the pace set by the beeps. At this point we stop and record the level. We can check our score with published tables and so work out our VO2 max. The test is easy to use and motivating, particularly when done with a group of people. It is the most widely used of all fitness tests. My training program: Day Training type Monday 1 1/2 hour varied pace swimming session Wednesday 1 hour long slow continuous XC cycle ride Friday 1/2 hour long slow continuous XC running Saturday 4 hour varied pace XC cycle ride Training types chosen: Varied pace: varying between sprinting and long distance
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For this type of training we work at between 60-80% of our maximum heart rate. High intensity continuous training. For this type of training we work at between 85-95% of our maximum heart rate. Fartlek Training Fartlek training involves training over distances far greater than our actual competition distance. It is a method of training in which we vary our pace and training conditions. It is a very good method for games players as they are involved in short intense activities followed by brief periods of recovery. Interval Training Fixed patterns of slow and fast exercises are used in interval training.
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The athlete leans forward slowly as far as possible and holds the greatest stretch for two seconds. Make sure there is no jerky movements and that the fingertips remain level and the legs flat. The score is recorded as the distance before (negative) or beyond (positive) the toes. Repeat twice and record the best score. I test my endurance by doing the cooper run test. The test comprises of seeing how far an athlete can run/walk in twelve minutes. This should be recorded by the total distance covered to the nearest 100 metres. I test my leg strength using both the standing and vertical jump tests.
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These things could be: * General fitness. They need to have a high level of general fitness as well as specific fitness. To improve general fitness they need to do things such as: * Improve endurance. Rugby players need to run for long periods of time and so need to have a high level of endurance. They could improve this by running for long periods of time. They could progress this training by running a bit faster each time, or running further each time etc.
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However a slight hint of agility is necessary to be able to develop the optimum running style round bends etc. Balance Balance is again not very important in the 400m, obviously you will have to be able to stand up, but you will not need to be able to do handstands or front flips, so just as long as you can run without falling over you will not need to work on balance Flexibility This is the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue, i.e.
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There are of course no restrictions in position for football, a defensive player can move forward at will, though sometimes neglecting their defensive duties can prove costly, this is less of an issue in netball, where the positions are less disciplined as the space you can move between is restricted. There are times when the players will be caught out of position, but far less frequently then in football, where more and more, with the progression of the modern game, players are often asked to increase their workload more and more.
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But when the game finally did get to England, it had acquired a bad enough reputation among British royalty that the government sometimes passed laws against soccer. The basic rules of football. The basic rules of football that are needed during a game are as follows:- 1. To start a game a coin will be tossed to determine either which end a team defends or whether they have kick off. 2. Goal Kick. When a team misses a shot at goal, or kicks the ball beyond their opponents' goal line, the opponent team will be allowed a goal kick.
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I the upper body, I will be looking to improve my biceps and triceps, my abdominals and deltoids. Explosive leg power is probably more important than upper-body strength, as a goalkeeper often needs to quickly recover to standing position to block oncoming shots, run towards the ball or ball carrier and kick the ball. Upper body strength is required to enable the goalkeeper to muscle through players to get to the ball and arm strength is needed to have strong resistance stopping the oncoming ball.
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� Cardiovascular Endurance - the ability of the heart, lungs and circulation to deliver oxygen and remove waste during exercise. This is essential for a runner to keep a constant pace all the way through the race. This is hard to perform in a circuit, so it would be better to improve this by running long distances or cycling. . Overload To improve the fitness of a part of the body, you need to overload it. That means you need to make it work harder than usual.
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The Shows in the Coliseum Were Blood Thirst but Noble Contests. To What Extent is this a fair description of Gladiatorial Fights?
Then the gladiators would salute the sponsor of the game with an extremely brave and courageous statement looking death right in the face. The gladiatorial fights also had strict, formal rules that were enforced, which adds something to the general nobility: e.g. a lanista would supervise the fight and weapons were submitted for inspection before the fight (those not sharp enough were discarded) As with any supposed sport, Gladiatorial fighting had strict etiquette, for example, a trumpet would be sounded at the end of the fight (when the lanista rushed in with a stick or the loser pleads for mercy by raising his index finger)
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* Hamstrings are also needed to kick the ball and run to support players and especially the goalkeeper. A defender playing football has to have different requirements, these are as follows: Reaction time- a defender needs a good reaction time because when he receive s he ball he has to immediately take control and find a team player to which he can safely pass to. Flexibility- a defender needs good flexibility so he can reach out as far as possible to take the ball off an opponent. Muscular endurance- a defender needs good muscular endurance because he has to be playing for 90 minutes and cant let his muscles get tiered quickly.
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If I had improved on my own ability, generally I would be much fitter then I was previously. My body type is more suited to playing football, rather then a sport like gymnastics because I am taller. I tend to fit into the mesomorph category and a little on the ectomorph. The potential risks involved in carrying out this circuit training programme are injury issues. This can be caused by many factors such as: injury to muscles by inflexible muscles. This can also be caused by not warming up/stretching or warming down (which I will explain later). Injuries can also be caused from lack of health and safety aspects.
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In sport, and in football in-particular, there are many key components of physical fitness that are required in order to succeed at any competitive level.
Muscular endurance is needed in football because your muscles are working hard for a very long time. In order to play well, you don't want your muscles to feel tired or weary, because then you will struggle to play to the best of your ability. An example of a player with good muscular endurance would be Chelsea centre midfielder Claude Makalele. This is because in centre midfield he is required to make a lot of tackles and physical challenges, yet he still plays at his peak without his muscles tiring too much and hindering his performance.
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However there are two types of circuit training: 1. FITNESS CIRCUITS e.g. Press-ups, sit-ups, shuttle runs, fartlek session 2. SKILL CIRCUITS e.g. Sprinting pick-ups, passing, catching, agility T, running with the ball I will be using both types in my circuit, but mainly focusing and improving on fitness and endurance as my circuit is targeted primarily at forward players. Purpose/aim of the programme: I will achieve something from my own training programme by setting goals or aims to work towards. These goals are an important planning element because they will motivate me to try harder and achieve more, but to also control anxiety.
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What can I do to increase my stamina when it comes to running, anything more than 10 minutes is totally exhausting even though I am fit for swimming and cycling?
This movement is the pull phase of the stride, which indoors is provided by the treadmill belt. For these reasons, if you are training for an outdoor event then some training must be completed outside. How do I choose the correct trainers for running? - There are so many! Without having your gait (the way that you walk/run) assessed it is very difficult to tell which trainers to go for. Good running shops will have staff who are trained to assess gait and then advise on training shoes but this is an inferior solution to seeing a Podiatrist.
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