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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. Personal Exercise Program (PEP).

    * Explosive acceleration and fast sprinting speed. * Proprioception and agility, so you have the ability to know where your body is, and you're able to effectively move it. * Endurance - both cardio-vascular (CV) and muscular. * Muscular balance and neuro-muscular coordination. My position in football is centre midfield, which is possibly the most physically demanding position on the pitch. If your side is attacking - you have to be up there assisting the attack, and if your side is defending you have to be back assisting the defense.

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  2. Personal Exercise Plan.

    Repeat this 5 times. (5 repetitions). This completes one set. (A set is made up of a number of repetitions). Then take a 2min rest. Do 3 sets altogether, with a 2min rest after each set. Session 3 Method of training = Flexibility Fitness objective = Improve the range of movement around a joint Subjective difficulty = 6/20 Positives/Problems = Too much force on a joint may lead to an injury Workout Do 20min of static stretching. Then have a 1min rest.

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  3. Technological Development in Football the last 30 Years.

    too make it specific you would do your speed and agility training by taking a football round cones then pass it on to the next person; and to practise balance they might have to control a pass while under pressure form a defender behind them. Direct or in direct, both methods will take advantage of the new scientific developments over the last 30 years, for example nowadays we have the aid of FVC and FEV1 test to make sure breathing patterns are normal and we have the VO2 max and Wingate tests to see how good our aerobic and anaerobic fitness levels are.

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  4. Personal exercise plan.

    Although I will be running a lot I do not need to build up great muscles in my leg because they will develop just as good from doing cardiovascular work. Flexibility - This is needed because you will be moving your body around in different positions all the time when you are challenging for the ball, taking a throw in and also shooting. Being more flexible will increase the risk of any injury especially in your legs and back. Safety considerations So I don't damage any muscles whilst carrying out my personal exercise plan I will be aiming to have at least a days rest in between each time I exercise.

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  5. For 2 contrasting sports identify and analyse the importance of health related fitness.

    The most commonly known being hand eye co-ordination, which combines your sense of sight to any muscular contraction, i.e. if you saw the ball coming towards you in cricket you would put your hands out in the correct position to try and catch it. Agility is the capability to change body position and/or direction quickly in precisely whilst maintaining speed. You would combine your reaction time and co-ordination with your agility, i.e. in squash when your opponent hits the ball you will have to see where it has gone, then react to that by using your agility to change body position quickly to reach for the ball.

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  6. Training programme for Basketball.

    If you don't do this, you will probably get bored very quickly. Throughout out my training program the aim will be to improve. Therefore I will steadily increase the amount of training that is done. Overload Overload means doing more than you previously did, not sticking to the same amount of reps for example. Increasing your load (overloading yourself). Running two miles every three days maintains a level of fitness. However if you increase this to Three miles for example, you are still increasing your fitness, you are overloading. As my training program is specific for a basketball guard player, when training I am to push them beyond their threshold.

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  7. Analysing Performance Sport: Kayaking

    There are many different principles that can be used in developing a training program, each exercise recognise each of these and address each as nessesscery. * Overload Training is to making your body work harder than it is known to easily, this will cause your fitness to improve. * Specificity is that all training must be targeted at skills and components of fitness specific to the activity or sport. * Progression is that all training must steadily progress from simple training to the desired level.

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  8. Training Programme.

    This training programme is an intense programme, which needs to be kept at schedule if I need to improve. This programme is six weeks long you are able to use it again and again but under higher repetitions if you want to improve. At first there are some easy drills used as a warm up to the programme. This drill is very intensive and is done to improve fitness in the quadriceps. As those muscles are used to jump by extending the leg. After that there are different levels of exercise that are used in drills by numerous athletes in basketball.

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  9. P.E. coursework.

    I am very susceptible to back problems and need to be careful not to exert any unnecessary pressure. To prevent this happening I need to make sure that I warm up properly. Fitness components For me to become successful at my sport I will need to have three main components; speed, as I need to be able to move around the court quickly. Flexibility because I need to be supple in order to reach certain shots. For me the most important one is stamina as I play badminton often and need to be able to last the whole game.

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  10. The Sport I would like to improve is The Javelin.

    Can use weight training equipment properly 2. Warming Up/Cooling Down 3. Stretching and flexibility work 4. Use of muscle groups 5. Eating and drinking patterns 6. Tramp leaning Improvements Noted ? Can now lift for 2 seconds and lower for 4 sec ? Breathing at different stages of exercise ? I don't get so tired ? Do not bounce during stretching ? Hold the stretch longer ? PNF ? Improved range of movements ? Better prepared - better performance generally ? Not sore the next day ? Learnt a variety of techniques to change emphasis - more interesting ?

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  11. Types of training.

    * Isokinetic- where specialist 'variable resistance' machines are required and gets the weights to vary as you work at a constant speed. * Isometric- where a contraction is held at a particular point for long periods of time. Circuit training Circuit training is a variety of activities designed to improve various muscles in the body. Each sector of the circuit is known as a station and these stations are usually positioned in a circular shape, therefore it is simpler for performers to use.

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  12. My Fitness Training Program.

    Wednesday: Is the same as a Tuesday except on the night I will go ice-skating and then ill walk back home from the ice rink. Thursday: Is the same as a Wednesday. Friday: Is the same as a Thursday. Saturday: Ill go ice-skating in the day then ice-skating in the night and walk around town for a while. Sunday: I sometimes play football and go ice-skating on the night. Injuries or health problems that may affect me. I have no injuries or health problems that could affect me while doing my training program.

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  13. Personal Exercise Program.

    If I increase my squats which focus on the quadriceps, gastrocnemius and hamstrings they will get stronger and be able to support more weight and "get down" more in the throw. I throw a 5kg shot-put and my personal best this season was 9.87 at Braintree on the 22nd of June. My discus is 27.36 which was thrown at Braintree on the 1st of August. These two throws may have been my best because of physiological reasons. At other clubs there is a psychological barrier which prevents you from throwing to your best.

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  14. Training programme for rugby.

    Speed Endurance: Improving my cardio vascular muscles will mean that I would be able to pump blood quicker and more effectively round my body. This would mean that I would be able to work harder for longer on the rugby field, as I would have less of an oxygen debt after 'working,' have a quicker recovery rate and I will be able to react quicker. This is specific to rugby, as every player on the team needs to run at some point, whether it is running from an attacker or trying to build up moment to go into a ruck.

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  15. P.E.P. The aim of this P.E.P is to build up my muscles and physique for a good and strong golf swing.

    This year in G.C.S.E PE we have been learning a lot about the correct techniques about weightlifting and all of the different principles involved with it. We have been taught correctly how to use all of the machines available in the gym and all the lifts that can help us. The main pieces of equipment I will be using are the bench press machine, a chin up bar, rowing machine, free weights (free bench press, barbell curl, front and back squats)

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  16. Describe and justify the assessment procedures you would carry out on an individual to assess a joint injury of your choice.

    Appropriate un-leading questions were used to direct appropriate responses, thus giving direction towards an appropriate clinical impression. For the clients comfort during the initial assessment the client remained clothed, this allowed the client to relax and a comprehensive history of personnel details and present condition to be taken. Past Medical History (PMH). Questioning the clients' past social history (SH) it was reported that the client played most school sports. The client reported that three years ago the client complained of posterior lower leg pain playing school rugby.

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  17. Personal Exercise Programme.

    But if you want to play at club, county or national level you need to be very fit. To be fit is to be in good health. There are many different aspects of fitness, some more important to badminton than others. The different types are (with examples of when and how they would be used in badminton): > Agility: You must be able to move your body weight around the court quickly and as efficiently as possible (using the least amount of energy possible).

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  18. Shoulder Injuries in Competitive Swimming.

    As the tissues become inflamed the narrow space between becomes tight worsening the impingement. Depending on how many yards per training session, the number of impingement positions will vary with the number of strokes and type of stroke the swimmer completes. The freestyle stroke consists of pull through phase while the arm is in the water, which provides propulsion, and a recovery phase in which the arm is above the water. In this stroke, which most swimmers use for the majority of training, the shoulder is subject to impingement during the early to mid pull-through phase.

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  19. Describe the physiological changes that occur in muscle when it is trained for endurance - What are the most effective ways of causing these changes?

    The stimulus for capillary development with training may be due to vascular stretch and shear stress on the vessel walls caused by the increased blood flow in aerobic exercise. To make full use of the better blood supply, aerobically trained muscle contain larger and more numerous mitochondria. Kiessling et. Al. (1971 in Fox and Matthews 1981) found a 120% increase in the number of mitochondria in vastus lateralis following a 28 week, 5 days per week training program of distance running.

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  20. Circuit Training Programme For Tennis.

    Overload I will overload by setting myself targets for each station of my circuit and by gradually increasing these targets throughout the five weeks. Reversibility I will aim to remain active throughout the week-long periods of time between performing my circuit so that the effects of my training are not reversed. Tedium I have designed my circuit so that I do not have any consecutive tedious activities. I will also perform different stations on different surfaces to avoid overuse injuries.

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  21. A six-week training program to improve Tennis skills.

    Session 3: Circuit training. 1 min of press-ups and sit-up, with 3 min gap in-between, and repeat twice. Also the Harvard Step Test, and record results to improve on later in the week. Week 2: Session 1: Fartleck, 10 min walk, 5 min jog, 20 sec flat-out sprint. 5 min walk for warm down. Spend 5 min stretching for warm down. Session 2: 30 min of Tennis skills. Serving, return of serve, forehand and backhand. Session 3: 30 min of weight training, muscular strength and endurance. For example, 2 min of biceps curls, then rest. 2 min of bench press, then rest. 2 min of Lateral raise and rest. 2 min of Single arm triceps extension and rest.

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  22. A training programme for a footballer.

    Safety Safety is very important in sport, so to make sure that this training programme is safe and does not injure anybody I am going to include a warm-up before and cool-down after the training sessions. I am going to warm up specific muscles that might be injured e.g. hamstrings, quadriceps and calf's before running exercises. I am also going to advise that cushioned trainers should be worn and most of the running exercises done on grass this should minimize the impact of running on joints especially the ankles and the knees.

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  23. Fitness planning.

    To increase strength I must carry weights (endurance and dynamic strength) to be capable of barging other players. Circuit training would be a helpful method and bleep tests to show if my stamina has increased. Below is a few specific fitness's that I would concentrate on. Agility: Needs to be improved so I will be able to change direction with the ball at ease, and to change my body position quickly. Improve on explosive strength or power: As a defender/midfielder I must be able to have enough strength to barge players as well as speed.

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  24. Personal Exercise Programme.

    Teamwork is something that most sports require. Every sport that I have done requires me to be involved in teamwork. Badminton is the only sport that I have played that doesn't require as much teamwork as the other sports apart from when it is doubles. Harvinder Singh Chana Page 3 My aims for this Personal Exercise Programme are mainly to improve my cardiovascular fitness. The types of training that I would do to improve my cardiovascular fitness would be continuous training.

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  25. Circuit Training.

    They are then timed for each circuit of exercises and aim to be faster each time they complete the circuit The advantages of circuit training are: - The variety of exercises prevents boredom - Can be done inside so weather is not an issue - Any kind of exercise can me included - It is easy to measure progress The disadvantages of circuit training are: - You may not have access to certain pieces of equipment Interval Training This involves alternating between fixed periods of exercise and fixed periods of rest or light exercise for recovery.

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