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GCSE: Exercise and Training

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What to think about when planning a warm up activity

  1. 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
  2. 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
  3. 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
  4. 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
  5. 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.

Why are warm ups important?

  1. 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
  2. 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
  3. 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
  4. 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
  5. 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).

Flexibility as part of a warm up

  1. 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
  2. 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
  3. 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
  4. 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
  5. 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.

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  1. P.E coursework Personal exercise programme (PEP)

    Flexibility: The sit and reach test, The Sit and Reach Test is conducted as follows: * The starting position is sitting on the floor with shoes removed, feet flat against the table, and legs straight * Reach forward and push the fingers along the table as far as possible * The distance from the finger tips to the edge of the table represents the score for that person * As the 'sit and reach' table has an overhang of 15 cm, a person who reaches 10 cm past their toes scores 25 cm * It is important to have several warm-up attempts first, and to record the best score (http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/sitreach.htm)

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  2. training program and s.p.o.r.t

    and make alterations if I need to. I will record my results and analyze them. As we have 1 lesson a week, I should be able to keep up with the fitness and not slack during the week. Then after 7 days I will have to do it again, so my body will start to get used to it.) To improve my body fitness, I will have to work very hard. Overall I will improve my strength, speed and stamina.

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  3. Leadership in PE

    that's why he manages a football team and he was also a footballer himself I think that Arsene Wenger has more knowledge than Mr cook because he manages a top team and he was a footballer before he managed a football team Activity Structure Mr cook starts with a warm up then a skill introduction and a conditioned game the we play a normal game and after that we warm down Usually he would tell the training coach to start them off with a warm up then focus on a skill and probably play a match after Arsene Wenger is

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  4. rules, observation and analysis

    Cool down: After we are done from our activity we cool down. We do this because: * It returns the heart rate to normal resting point. * It returns the body to its natural status. (pre exercise state) * It helps to remove waste products from your muscles, such as lactic acid, which can build up during vigorous activity. Cardiovascular exercise: Cardiovascular exercise is a type of exercise that involves oxygen consumption by the body to create energy for the muscles being worked. Cardiovascular exercise helps your body's organs that are in charge of moving gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, nutrients and any waste products to and from cells do this more efficiently.

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  5. GCSE Coursework

    So it is vital to be prepared nutritionally. 3. To be in the right mental state is important as you are focused on the task ahead of you. If something else is bothering you, your performance can be affected as your focus isn't spot on. Therefore you should have a clear, focused, and prepared mind going into a contest. Describe 3 factors which affect performance in a negative way; 1. Low level of confidence can affect performance in a negative way because you go into the task believing that the other person will beat you.

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  6. Skills of a sports leader

    Evaluation Evaluation is evaluating your sessions and deciding if your session worked well or not. If your session did not work well you will have to make changes. A leader who is good at evaluating is Alex Ferguson, he evaluates his session because he wants his team to be the best and to improve. Evaluating his session allows him to focus on the things that need improving in his session. A PE teacher will also evaluate her session to see whether it ran smoothly and what changes could be made to the session. Managing a group Managing a group is adapting to work with different numbers of people in your session.

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  7. netball weaknesses

    BOUNCE PAST Nicolette's bounce pass is very weak because she uses at the wrong time she uses when the player is far away form her she should use it when a player is in front of her so she can pass around the players body.

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  8. Sprint Training Plan

    At school I do 3 hours of PE, which involves sports such as: hockey, netball, basketball, badminton, athletics, volleyball, trampolining and rounders. In the beginning of each school year I also have netball practice for 1 hour a week, and sometimes we have matches which, are probably about an hour overall. Every evening I try to do aerobic exercises, which include exercises that work out my abdominals, quads/gastronemius, biceps/triceps, gluteals and trapezius/deltoid. Targets * Quicker starts, (improve reaction time). * Improve endurance, so can last at top speed throughout the race. * Increase speed, so I can get quicker times.

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  9. Nutrition For A Basketball Player

    Complex carbohydrates as refined starches are found in: * biscuits, pastries and cakes * pizzas * sugary processed breakfast cereals * white bread * white flour * white pasta * White rice. Simple carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates are also known as sugars. They also exist in either a natural or refined form. Natural sugars are found in fruit and vegetables. Refined sugars are found in: * biscuits, cakes and pastries * chocolate * honey and jams * jellies * brown and white cane sugar * pizzas * prepared foods and sauces * soft drinks * sweets and snack bars.

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  10. The skills and techniques required for an opening bowler in Cricket is the knowledge of the essential rules of the sport.

    The demands of the sports are also a vital requirement for a bowler, such as line and length. This is accuracy of where to pitch the ball- Full, Good and Short length. Also the situation of the game depends on how to bowl the perfect bowl (e.g. Yorker at the end of the innings in a one day match.). Other demands of Cricket are to be change direction (flexibility) and speed. This is very essential to become a great bowler.

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  11. Personal Exercise program

    Tuesday Today I did 5 sets of 20 bicep curls using three kilogram weights in each hand. However I don't think I managed to reach the overload. I also had a Rugby training session today at the Bahrain Rugby Football Club. We did a lot of fitness training in today's session e.g. We had a partner relatively the same size as us and we had to carry them on our backs across the field then back again then we would swap and do the same again.

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  12. P.E - analysis of preformance

    Also her arms are the right length apart and not too close to her face which will give her more power whilst swimming. Eleanor also uses a bent arm pull, and does not have a straight arm recovery. This means she has a good knowledge of the sport and her body will not roll and there will be no resistance on entry with the water. She has got very good stamina and so she will be able to keep a fast but constant speed whilst she is swimming.

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  13. pe coursework

    You need agility in badminton to be able to adjust your body from one position to another in order to hit the shuttlecock. Another crucial factor is the speed of reaction. In order to be good at singles badminton you must have a good reaction time. Which is the time it takes for example to get to a shuttlecock and hit it back. Also movement time is necessary a good one. Which is the time taken between the initiation of a response and the completion of the movement.

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  14. GCSE PE 1+2

    1h 50% Tuesday PE Lesson 1h 50% Wednesday PE Lesson, Running 2h 60% Thursday Football after school (with mates) 1h45 60% Friday PE lesson 1h 50% Saturday Sunday 4 As a result of my tests I have identified that I am weak in important areas of my sport and need to improve these to become a better footballer. 5 When planning my training there are many factors I need to take into consideration 'S.P.O.R.T.F.I.T.T'; Specific: Making sure that the training is suitable to the sport that you play. Eg. Muscular endurance to football. Progression: to ensure that each time you train, your results improve.

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  15. P.E.P- Push Pass Hockey

    When I was 11 I started playing hockey for school. And by the age of 12-13 I was playing for York and Selby district and North Yorkshire u 14's. Then from the age of 14 I played for City Of York Hockey Club, and I also played for North Yorkshire, for the 2nd year running, and I play tennis for the school team and have done for the past 3 years. I do about 2 hours or PE a week and at least 1 hour of sports studies, In the winter I play hockey for school, 1hour 30minuets training once a week and at least one match a week.

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  16. Observation sheet

    ? Racquet held in right position ? ? ? ? Correct grip on the racquet ? ? Shuttlecock hit below waist ? ? ?

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  17. Planning, Performing and Evaluating a Five Week Personal Training Schedule - (From Intro to Pre-Testing)

    Fitness is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, free from illness and injury. There are two different types of fitness: health related and skill related. The health related components of fitness are: * Cardiovascular Fitness: the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time. This is important in rounders for when running between the bases for the whole game, and covering large areas of the field as a fielder. * Muscular Endurance: the ability to use the muscles which are attached to the bones, many times without getting tired. This is important in rounders to prevent muscle strains and aches.

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  18. Free essay

    The date of observing Michael Burnley will start in September 2005. The sport that I will be teaching Michael will be Rugby League that will cover a wide range of skills needed to play Rugby.

    Opposing players would identify a player that is struggling and target the weakness in the side, letting the standard of the team performance fall. Support - this is important in rugby as if you are up with play and you are supporting the man with the ball it gives the ball carrier options and you will score if the man with the ball passes to you. SAQ - Speed, Agility, Quickness Speed - this is a very important skill in rugby because if you can break the defensive line you have speed to be able to accelerate away from the defence and score.

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  19. P/E Games candidate

    Purpose: Handgrip strength is important for any sport where the hands are used in a variety of ways e.g. throwing or catching. A general rule is that people with strong hands tend to be stronger in other areas. Description: You hold the dynamometer in one hand in line with the forearm and hanging down by the thigh. Athlete must not swing their arm. Best of 3 is taken forward. The advantages were: Simple test of general strength. The disadvantages were: Dynamometer should be adjusted according to hand size as this will affect accuracy.

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  20. P.e.p I will be looking at how to improve myself in Football.

    Evaluation: Before I do any task in my PEP I will firstly measure my heart rate for about 15 seconds and time its by 4 to get my BPM (beats per minute), The PEP that I will do in my p.e classes will be based on improving my stamina and my muscular endurance by undertaking either a bleep test or doing the circuit training. After the bleep test or my circuit training I would measure my heart rate again to find out my bpm after exercise.

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  21. sport injuries

    The most common treatments for a hamstring strain is to use R.I.C.E which is Rest Ice Compress and Elevate. Stop playing the sport that you are participating in to ensure that the hamstring muscle doesn't diterate any more then it is already. If the Hamstring Muscle doesn't get any better go and See a sports injury specialist To prevent any further hamstring muscle strains ensure that you warm up correctly. Stretch before and after exercise. Also do various stretches that involve stretching the hamstring muscle to ensure that the muscle is stronger then it previously was and to ensure that a hamstring strain is a minimum risk for you to participate in sport.

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  22. Fitness Profile

    / E = Excellent : Worst Three : Best Three My best three fitness tests are 'Shuttle Run', 'Stork Stand' and 'Standing long jump'. Reasons why these three tests are the best are that because I have good balance, I could stand for 10 minutes for 'Stork Stand'. To do this test well, you have to stand well-balanced, which is to stand on your right foot if you use right foot and you use left foot if you use left foot usually.

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  23. personal exercise plan

    One of my aims is to improve my muscular strength. Improving my muscular strength in football will help me be stronger on the ball, win more tackles and be strong passing the ball. Improving my muscular strength will directly improve my game in the way it is played professionally. To improve my muscular strength I will use circuit training and continuous training. To be a good footballer you must be able to run up and down the football pitch, so one of my aims is cardiovascular endurance, my position involves running back to help defence and also running forward to

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  24. Btec 6 Week Training Program

    In the warm up I will do 5 minutes stretching 5 minutes jogging and 10 minute activity such as passing to improve my passing ability. My main activity that day will be a cooper run to test and improve my cardiovascular endurance this will take about 12 minute and 1 lap will equal 100m after I have done that I will still have some time left so I will practice my passing for 10 minutes and then do a warm down the warm down will be 5minutues jogging and 5 minutes stretching and that will be the end of my day ant my first week.

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  25. History of badminton and P.E.P

    In the 17th century, Battledore or Jeu de Volant was an upper class pastime in many European countries. Versions of the game had been played for centuries by children in the Far East, and were adapted by British Army officers stationed in Pune (or Poona), India in the 1860s. They added a net and the game became a competitive sport called "poona", with documented rules in 1867. In 1873 the sport made its way back to England and gained its current title after guests at a Badminton House lawn party held by the Duke of Beaufort introduced it to their friends as "the Badminton game".

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