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GCSE: Exercise and Training
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What to think about when planning a warm up activity
- 1 Be clear of the purpose of the warm-up BEFORE you plan the content and adjust it accordingly.
- 2 Consider WHO you are planning the warm-up for - Is it an elite squad or a recreational group or a class of 7 year old children?
- 3 Consider WHAT activity or sport the warm-up is preparing the participants for as this should affect the content and focus of the warm-up.
- 4 Fun can be a central part of warming up. This can encourage motivation and mental readiness.
- 5 The coach or leader should know about any pre-existing injuries or medical conditions of the participants BEFORE they begin the physical elements of a warm-up.
Why are warm ups important?
- 1 Before any flexibility work, participants should be thoroughly warmed up. This will involve physical movement to generate an increase in temperature.
- 2 The intensity of the warm-up should be gradually increase. Too severe an intensity too soon will increase the risk of muscular injury (strain or muscle tear). Conside muscles to be like plasticine that once warmed, it is more pliable and stretchy.
- 3 Your joints also need mobilizing. The movement and temperature increases the availability of synovial fluid, the lubricating oily fluid in synovial joints such as knees and ankle.
- 4 Include some basic and simple skills (eg passing) within the warm-up. This will increase the level of preparedness of the muscles and joints.
- 5 Warm-up activities can be cooperative which will develop a team ethos or competitive (be cautious as this may cause participants to work too intensely).
Flexibility as part of a warm up
- 1 There are a variety of forms of flexibility training, including : static active, static passive, ballistic, dynamic & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
- 2 Historically, the most common ways of stretching have been static active – this is where you move into a position (stretch) and your muscles hold you in that position for up to around 10secs.
- 3 Static passive stretching involves an object (a wall, a fence, a hurdle) or a person (partner holding your leg / arm) holding your muscle in a certain stretch.
- 4 Due to evidence that static stretching can reduce the power output of that muscle for a period after the stretching, the more current method of flexibility is dynamic stretching. This involves moving under control through a range of movement (eg walking lunges or controlled arm circles) in order to increase the range of movement. Ballistic flexibility is a faster and more dangerous version of this.
- 5 PNF is very effective, and relies on good communication between the partners. PNF involves overriding or inhibiting a protective stretch reflex (that is in place to reduce the stretch allowed by a muscle) and allowing the muscle to stretch further.
Place your feet against the leg press. Keep them about shoulder width apart and flat on the press. Hold the handles on any leg press machine that provides them. They will give you added support as you move the weight during the exercise. Tighten your abdominal muscles during and in between each repetition. This will increase the effectiveness of your workout, as well as help to work on your core (your abdominal muscles). More importantly, keeping a tight abdomen helps to prevent lower back injuries. Take a breath in as you prepare to press the weight.
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Thus hill walking is an acitivity that provides leisurely enjoyment, recreation as well as various health benefits that can improve a person's overall fitness and aerobic capability. REQUIRED FITNESS COMPONENTS General Fitness Strengths Why they are important... Cardiovascular fitness This is the ability to exercise the body for long periods of time. The cardiovascular means heart and blood vessels. These areas interdependent to get oxygen into the body, distribute it and get carbon-dioxide out. An efficient cardiovascular systems results in good stamina; which was important during the treks since their duration was almost as long as the daylight hours of
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It's important for footballers but particularly my position because midfielder's need to run for long period of time. To last for the full 90 minutes requires lots of stamina to get from side of the pitch to the other and back very quickly. Agility. It's important for defenders because they need to change direction quickly and to run up the pitch constantly using all the various muscle groups. Speed. It's important for footballers who play up front because you can speed up to a loose or a long ball and run at defenders. Unless you are quick enough to catch attacking players size and strength alone will not make a quality defender.
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Having that extra strength gives you the advantage against other players and enables to position yourself. This is done by boxing out (sometimes referred to as blocking out). Boxing out is where you position your self between the basket and another player and push them away by backing into them therefore you have to be close to the basket at all times. Strength is needed so that you can protect the ball after a missed shot. It's important to rebound so that the other team does not get another chance of scoring and offensively you create another opportunity for your team to score.
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heart rate CV Fitness Sergeant Jump Measure the distance between highest reach and level gained by jumping as high as possible Power Sit and Reach Measure the distance you can reach past your toes when sat down, with legs straight Flexibility Illinois Agility Run Measure the time taken to run around a set course in and out of cones Agility Abdominal Curl test Count the number of sit-ups you can do in one minute Muscular Endurance Press up test Count the number of press ups you can do in one minute Muscular Endurance 30m sprint Time taken to run 30m Speed Rate your own level of fitness and explain your rating (Excellent, Very Good, Good, Average, Poor and Very poor)
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Health related fitness:- * Cardiovascular endurance Good stamina/Endurance is needed for long continued periods of high performance swimming. * Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance will be needed so you are able to perform repeated contractions at near or maximum level for an extended period of time; such as continuing at the same speed and performance in every length. * Muscular strength Muscular strength will be needed so you are able to put the maximum power into a single stroke. Skill related fitness:- * Speed Speed is a born ability however speed is needed for the ability to swim quickly.
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When a ball is kicked behind the line of goal, it shall be kicked off from that line by one of the side whose goal it is. 8. No player may stand within six paces of the kicker when he is kicking off. 9. A player is 'out of play' immediately he is in front of the ball and must return behind the ball as soon as possible. If the ball is kicked by his own side past a player, he may not touch or kick it, or advance, until one of the other side has first kicked it,
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The common image of a healthy person is of someone who is physically fit or does not have an illness. There is more to health than this though and health, or well being, has five major dimensions. * Cognitive Health- Is your smartness. * Physical Health- To exercise and get stronger. * Social Health- To hang around with friends, and have conservation. * Emotional Health- How you feel. * Spiritual Health- Having pride and Spirit. Sexual feelings are something each of us must deal with as we enter adulthood and become 'Sexual Beings'.
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There is also more chance that because the hand is being forced back into the water, because of the late turn of the head that catch will be missed or be late and the elbow will drop. The elbow will come in line with or below the hand rather than remaining high for a powerful pull 2. Elbow It is important when performing front crawl to keep a high elbow as it generates more power when going through the water.
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* Reductions in appetite, which can help lose weight in the short term. * The senses of smell and taste are also reduced, which results in loss of pleasure in eating and can make food quite boring, as well as being a hazard in certain environments. * A further effect is a bad breath, a direct consequence of each cigarette smoked. * Smoking improves mental functions; however, it is followed by a period of reduced brain activity. Long term effects of Smoking * Smoking increases the chance of a heart disease, one reason for this increase in heart disease is that if the deposits of fat and cholesterol cigarettes make on the blood
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School education encourages young people to take up active recreations and sports. Education shapes our sporting views by making children want to take part in physical activities when they grow up because they took part in physical education in school. After school when you have passed 16, you might want to go onto college or university. Then you might go onto find a huge array of clubs and societies available that allow them to continue with those activities they already enjoy or perhaps even try some new ones. The types of school you go to influences your sports choices and often standard because if you go to a school with loads of
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Home With others Dinner Chicken pie 1 185 185 Potato 1 120 120 Peas 1 71 71 376 Friday 21:30 Home with others Dinner pizza 1 800 800 Salad 1 150 150 950 Saturday 08:30 Home with others Drink black coffee with sugar 1 5 5 12:00 Town with others Snack Cream cakes 4 100 400 20:00
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Working at 60-70% MHR Cool Down - 5 min Jog. At a low intensity of 50-60% MHR 5min stretches CV Flexibility Continuous/ Aerobic Continuous/ Aerobic Flexibility Prepare for exercise Prevent Injury Improve Cardiovascular Fitness Help recovery Reduce build up of Lactic Acid 8 18 9 5 Felt very tired after a late night before, and got a strong stitch at about 700m. This made me slow down dramatically, but still completed the task. Week 1 - Session 3 Warm-up - 200m swimming. At a low intensity of 50-60% MHR. Exaggerating stretch of stroke.
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Pace covers a similar area. With improved pace, both attacking and defending becomes much easier. Chasing down attackers and putting them under pressure or tackling them is a vital ability to have, and better speed means an improved ability to do so. In attack, it makes it easier to get past defenders when dribbling or receiving a pass behind the backline. Analysis I play right full-back. To help me compare and also to have a level to aim for, I have looked at Gareth Bale of Southampton FC.
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to which muscles can apply force * Body Composition - How the body is made up of bone, muscle and fat * Cardiovascular Fitness - the heart's ability to deliver oxygen to working muscles and to use it The other aspects of fitness, which are Skill, related fitness: * Speed - The time in which a distance is covered in a short period of time. * Power - The ability to exert muscle contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements. * Agility - The ability to change direction and movement quickly, and still keep control of the whole body.
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Dribbling - Start with the ball at your feet, dribble up and down around 10 - 15 meters to get use to the ball. - Start with the ball at your feet, you will hear three numbers called out randomly and not in any particular order, there are three numbers, for example 1, 2 and 3, when 1 is called out you will dribble with the ball but at a walking pace, when 2 is called out you will dribble with the ball but at a jogging pace and when 3 is called out you will dribble with the ball but at a sprinting/running pace.
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* I work as a temporary (back-up) employee for a local pet shop at the weekend, working for 6 hours * Tennis for 2 hours at the weekend on random occasions In total I am active for well over 10 hours a week - a high proportion of my available leisure time. This is also includes the mental 'stimulation' for the brain with homework and reading etc. Awareness of safety considerations: When planning my personal exercise programme I must consider every safety aspect; so that no one, including myself, is hurt or injured in any way.
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Power is often referred to as fast strength. It is also combination of strength and speed. The stronger and faster the bowl is, the harder they make it for the opposition. Power would also be needed when batting, if the batsman has a fast ball coming towards him he will need as much power as possible to hit the ball as far as possible. The last component I think that would be needed is flexibility. Flexibility is the amount or range of movement that you can have around a joint.
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If the demands made on the performer are too sharp in increase, the overload principle could possibly result in injury. Overload - If an athletes body experiences the same intensity or stress each time they train, their performance will mot improve. In order for changes to take place and improvements to be made, it is essential that you keep increasing the level of challenge.
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2 marks Exercise Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Session 4 Session 5 Ladder lengths (7 strides in a ladder length- 30 seconds) Target: 6 Achieved: 6 How I felt: good Target: 6.5 Achieved: 6.5 How I felt: exhausted Target: 7 Achieved: 7 How I felt: tired Target: 7.5 Achieved: 7.5 How I felt: good Target: 8 Achieved: 7.5 How I felt: good Cone lengths (8 strides in a length of cones passing between them in a zigzag motion. 30 seconds Target: 6 Achieved: 6.5 How I felt: tired Target: 6.5 Achieved: 7 How I felt: exhausted Target: 7 Achieved:
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I have more agility because I run in a position where I can side-step relatively easily. I tend to tackle low, and run low when I am carrying the ball so it is more difficult to be tackled. I think that when we are playing I stay positive even if we are losing and try to motivate the team. I need to get a bit lower when I am running with the ball, if I want to get further, but I run low enough to gain a reasonable distance and I am able to shrug off tackles when running if I am aggressive.
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The exact parameters of a properly designed training program depend not only on the individual climber, but on what type of climbing is being targeted. It is recommended that participants take courses in skill development and safety in addition to physical training regimens. Common Climbing Injuries Some of the most common climbing injuries are a result of repetitive stress to muscles in the forearm and fingers that result in tendonitis of the fingers, wrist or elbow. Rotator cuff injuries are also common, usually as a result of muscle imbalances or weakness.
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My co-ordination levels are pretty high so I feel that my focus needs to be upon the other components. * Strength and Power: In Basketball Muscular Strength and power is required mainly in defensive plays as you will need to keep the opposition out of the key to prevent them from scoring with ease. Also when rebounding that strength is needed to reach as high as possible, I am a reasonably short player so this will be at a high level of importance to improve upon.
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Resources needed: Marked 20 metre running area 'Bleep' test Recording Notepad to record level It is expected that after carrying out my training session I will reach a higher level in the bleep test as my fitness should have increased. Safety > Warm up before exercise and cool down after exercise > Correct equipment & clothing > No Chewing > No food and Drink > No jewellery > Tied Laces > Must alternate muscles/areas being targeted Warm up's are a vital part of a training programme, they loosen and warm the muscles to help to prevent injuries and they also prepare you psychologically.
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