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GCSE: Miscellaneous

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  1. Environmental Philosophy Reflection

    On the other hand, the destruction of scenery, water pollution, air pollution and similar environmental problems due to increase in technology are not only affecting human beings (increase in health problems like asthma), but are also affecting the other living things and changing the natural environment we live in. However, although science and technology can create these problems, they can also solve them. For the past few years, humans were blamed for domination and greed towards nature. This is partly true as we certainly didn't think of the impact on environment as a result of our daily work.

    • Word count: 1181
  2. Earth Summits are all talk and no action Do you agree?

    There are also some religious views that disagree with the statement. A Christian might disagree because they believe in stewardship and by attending Earth Summits people are trying to look after God's sacred Earth. Although the Earth Summits may have minimal results, the world is trying to agree on a view that will improve the quality of life for future generations. Christians believe that we are looking after the planet for God - stewardship - and that we must not exploit it.

    • Word count: 786
  3. Design Argument

    That a strong wind blew and the painting had existed? Of course not! It just shows the same way about the world, that it did not happen just by any chance, and that it was designed by God. Secondly, another strong aspect in the design argument is the Anthropic Principle. It is stated that God specifically design the universe for the human species to exist. Imagine if the giant explosion that created the universe, the Big Bang theory, had made a temperature colder or hotter from our normal temperature today, then, there is a big chance that the human species wouldn't exist.

    • Word count: 872
  4. Democracy is a universal good. Do you agree?

    This ensures that no views are left out and no group is discriminated against. This is the case in Singapore,, which practices a representative democracy. In Singapore's parliament, there are representatives from the largest ethnic groups on the island and the minority all have a representative in parliament. Furthermore, the smaller groups are not left out as there is a separate board where the religious headers of the nation come together to discuss issues. All these measures have helped Singapore, which is a country with a diversity of races, religions and ethnic groups, maintain a state if stability, and there have not been any major racial tensions for a few decades.

    • Word count: 915
  5. Plato on Epistemology

    idea in the form of an aviary to enhance his message that the human mind is filled with flocks of knowledge that one can grasp: "Let us now suppose that in the mind of each there is an aviary of all sorts of birds. Some flocking together apart from the rest, others in small groups, others solitary, flying anywhere and everywhere.... We may suppose that the birds are all kinds of knowledge, and that when we were children, This receptacle was empty; whenever a man has gotten and detained in the enclosure a kind of knowledge, he may be said to have learned or discovered the thing which is the subject of the knowledge: and this is to know."

    • Word count: 3486
  6. Our Life Is The Creation Of Our Mind

    if a man speaks and acts with a pure mind, joy follows him as his own shadow'. I agree with some parts of this statement however, I do not agree with all of it. This quote is Buddha's way of explaining Karma. The Buddha does this by saying that 'If a man speaks or acts with an impure mind, suffering follows him as the wheel of the cart follows the beast that draws the cart ...' The man has done something wrong and now has bad Karma following him like the cart follows the horse that draws it.

    • Word count: 699
  7. It cannot be true that there is life after death, because there is no evidence for it. Do you agree? You must refer to one religion in your answer.

    Christianity says that there is an afterlife but proposes no evidence for this. Also the historic nature of the bible and the differences in interpretation also hinder its scientific validity. This is also the case with the Quran therefore these two religious texts bear no scientific evidence to show there exists an after life. There are cases of near death experiences where people die and come back to life and they say they have seen dead relatives or family members. There are also cases where people die and see a white light.

    • Word count: 538
  8. Analyse Aristotle's Causes (Aitiai)

    metal, wood etc., 2. The Efficient Cause - how it came into being, i.e. what/who made it, 3. The Formal Cause - what characteristics does it have that makes it what it is and finally 4. The Final Cause -why was it made? The Final Cause of something could also be called its purpose, its aim or goal and it is essentially 'What it's made for'. This is the cause which Aristotle believed to be the most important. For example, here are the Four Causes of a chair; its Material Cause would be wood, its Efficient Cause would be a carpenter, its Formal Cause would be that it has four legs and a surface to sit on, and its Final Cause would be for people to sit on it.

    • Word count: 918
  9. Aboriginal Spirituality

    The dreaming is fundamental to aboriginal beliefs and spirituality because it is the centre to aboriginal religion and life. It is portrayed in many ways these follow, art, song, mythology, stories and rituals. Dreaming is the past, present and future. It is Aboriginal people's religious framework and their worldview. The Dreaming is the concept which is the underpinning of beliefs and practices of the Aboriginal People and their communities. It is therefore important because it defines the relationships and responsibilities for all Aboriginal people. The dreaming is the explanation of why the land is the critical expression of Aboriginal spirituality.

    • Word count: 637
  10. Has science made the Bible a useless document?

    Non-literal Christians would say that as the Bible is the direct Word of God I contains truths not comprehensible to our human minds, and therefore some events are depicted through myths and metaphors, meaning the events depicted in some places in the Bible could be disproved by science, as the events did not truly exist. However, they would still not argue that the bible is a useless document, as it is the Word of God and often provides much-needed comfort to those in distress.

    • Word count: 582
  11. Concepts of Beauty in Philosophy

    Then the learner should realise that the beauty of souls is superior to the beauty of bodies. The second stage is to love beautiful practises and customs and to recognise that all beautiful customs share a certain charm, or beauty. Then, the learner should recognise beauty in all different kinds of knowledge. Socrates thinks that the final stage should be experiencing beauty itself as something not embodied by anything physical or spiritual. In 'Symposium', Plato draws a clear line between beautiful things in the world of sense, and beauty itself in the intelligible world.

    • Word count: 1020
  12. Religious Freedom

    A lot may argue that this is why religious freedom (and for the most part today, tolerance) is so evident in our country. On the opposite side of the spectrum, however, look at Saudi Arabia. The country formed, in part, due to a holy war, has a monarchial government, and adopted the Islamic holy text, The Koran, as its constitution (BBC). It also prohibits any religion except for a conservative version of Sunni Islam (US Department of State). It wouldn't be accurate, however, to assume that every country's current-day religious tolerance depends on its foundation. Take Cuba for example: the country was founded by the Spanish, who formed it into a Catholic nation.

    • Word count: 1124
  13. Who am I?

    Finally, at the age of fourteen, I reentered the boxing ring and experienced my second defining moment. Unfortunately, I am still running circles in the hell-box, with the disease trailing closely behind. Nonetheless, this time around I have remained on my feet. I do not think the match will ever end. For, once the disease grasps a hold of an individual, it pervades one's mind, leaving an irremovable and, needless to say, burdening stain upon it. Those who are not afflicted by anorexia cannot fathom the agony of the sickness. It preys on one's mind; every thought, action, or feeling is a product of its intervention.

    • Word count: 1070
  14. Evolution - RS

    Eve was extracted from Adam and God presented her to Adam as his wife. This fact alone denies the concept of Evolution in Biblical terms. But evolutionists, very easily, deny the truthfulness of the first 3 chapters of Genesis because if the first 3 chapters of Genesis are denied, then the whole concept of Christianity falls because its foundation is in these 3 chapters. This is exactly what evolutionists want, for Evolution was invented to effectively do away with a Supreme God that has dominion over our lives imposing on us the concept of sin, as an offence against Him, for which we will have to give an account of our lives, and receive our just due.

    • Word count: 585
  15. Material Possessions will never bring happiness

    It is not only money that sets us off craving for more but other things. Such as cars, houses, clothes and CDs but if these things make us happy why then, do we still long for other things? This saying is not only significant to everyday life but also to people of different faiths. In Buddhism for example, one of the noble truths (Tanha) clearly states that suffering (Dukhha) is caused by craving. It explains how the things we crave for are in fact insufficient, selfish, worldly, materialistic and unsatisfactory.

    • Word count: 672
  16. Muslims and the west: a never ending conflict.

    Haqqani misrepresented the recent events in the Islamic world in his essay. Haqqani claims that "the conduct and rhetoric of Muslim leaders and their failure to address the stagnation of their societies has also fueled the tensions between Islam and the West (Haqqani, 1)". For such conclusions to be made, fair amount of knowledge of both societies must be kept into consideration. On the other hand, Amil Imani, the author of the article of "Is Islam Misrepresented?" believes that Muslims are misrepresented through the media, especially through the news. She argues that "A case in point is the media's portrayal of Islam, articulated by politicians and pundits-the talking heads on television and radio, as well as the analysts who write for newspapers and magazines (Imani)".

    • Word count: 977
  17. Platonic Forms

    But there is also another eternal world which consists of concepts and forms. It is more real than the world we experience through our senses, and it is the object of knowledge not opinion. He said that the world of sense experience is subject to constant change. For example a leaf that was green yesterday could be brown today, and a boy may be five feet tall now who was two inches shorter some months ago. But the colour brown itself cannot become the colour green, and the height of four feet, ten inches, cannot become the height of five feet.

    • Word count: 1513
  18. Are Science and Religion Compatible over the question of how the universe began?

    However, both of these examples, similar to many others, are theories, based on human perception and interpretation. Science and religion contradicting each other can make them incompatible over the question of how the universe began, but people need to accept both to enable the two views to exist together. It is possible that the views of science and religion are compatible over the question in that they can work 'side-by-side'; although it has here been disproved that they can agree over the question of how the universe began. However, generally arguments between religion and science, and between religions, within human society, are not peaceful conflicts, and this does not change with the question of how the universe began.

    • Word count: 913
  19. Do religious experiences exist?

    Disputable mental health statuses can cause what is believed to be a religious experience: people with ill mental health may experience what they would assume is a religious experience. Religious experiences can also be claimed as a result of a vivid dream or inexplicable lights or sounds. Links with God can be imagined or added to the experience for dramatic effect - supernatural effects can be common, but lacking a link with God. Strong religious believers may also believe themselves closer to God, and link this with an (imaginary)

    • Word count: 559
  20. The only situation which would justify abortion would be to save the mothers life. Discuss this statement.

    rape, then a woman owns her body so she has more right to live and more right to claim her body than the foetus does. She also said that as an act of self defence, women should be able to act, especially as unwanted pregnancy causes physical strains to women. Thomson compared the Foetus and Woman to tenants and owners; she stated that they are not equal rights. A foetus is 'using' the mother's body, so it can be compared to a tenant and not an owner.

    • Word count: 941
  21. Sima Qian and Bias

    Thus, a record of history not only provides information of the past, but it also serves as a reflection of the historian's own perceptions. This is not just a modern phenomenon, but has been a part of the history recording process for nearly as long as people have been recording history. In fact, the ancient Chinese historians selectively included and carefully organized portions of history as a strategic method to bring about a specific point or message. As such many accounts of Chinese history also provide insight to the historian's own perceptions of the past, as well as the influences received by the historian from their own time and culture.

    • Word count: 2352
  22. Mencius and Xunzi on Cultivation

    The differences in their views on human nature lead to the ultimate difference of interpretation of the betterment of human nature. Although both philosophers had differences, their ultimate goal was to suggest that human beings can be good and this is what the state needed in such a crucial time in China's history. To elaborate further on human nature, it is crucial to look at its development within each philosopher's teachings. Mencius, being the idealist that he was, believed in the innate goodness of man.

    • Word count: 2200
  23. Plato's Theory of Forms

    Plato described the Forms as what philosophers look for whilst looking for the truth. They are the source of all knowledge. Forms are certainly more real than particulars, which only 'appear' to exists, and are basically a pale reflection of the Forms. I will use beauty as an example again. A beautiful woman is only an illusion of that persons idea of beauty and indeed a very poor guess of the true Form of beauty. The forms are basically different from the visible world as that they are dependent upon physical matter. The forms have to be one hundred percent reliable as they are the source of all knowledge.

    • Word count: 1138
  24. The Big Bang Theory

    Each religion has its own myths and legends relating to how the universe was made on the basis of God, and when science theories relating to the beginning of the universe were formed, added up to the overall range of possibilities to how man was created, and how the world evolved. A main logical scientific theory to explain the formation of the universe would be the Big Bang. So just what is the Big Bang theory? As a scientist puts it in simple terms, "It means that everything we now see or know about was once compacted into an unimaginably small blip that suddenly expanded in a huge explosion that created the very space and time it was expanding into."

    • Word count: 657
  25. Reflection on Metaphysics and Learning

    What is 'standard blue'? Plato believed our souls are permanent and before we were born into this existence, our mind experienced the perfect forms of objects in the "World of Forms" and thus we could identify and classify things according to this imprinting. However, Aristotle insisted that we learn from observation and our minds automatically form general concepts. There is a famous question which can show the different ideas between Aristotelianism and Platonism. That is - what is the standard of a table since there are so many kinds of tables?

    • Word count: 519

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • The only situation which would justify abortion would be to save the mothers life. Discuss this statement.

    "Another stance to the argument, and one that several feminists take up is the issue that a woman has a right to her own privacy. If this is agreed with, then women have the right to make the decision as to what they think is best for themselves and for the foetus, this can potentially inhibit the extinction of the foetus. A feminist called Christine Overall thinks that it is immoral not to respect the personal p"

  • 'There is no such thing as evil' Discuss this statement.

    "Others might argue that, because we have free will, we are sinful because we have the ability to choose our own actions and therefore evil is not created by God, but in fact it is created by humans who abuse their free will. This gets rid of the problems raised by God allowing evil because God has given us free will and thus any moral evil is humans fault. However, this doesn’t answer the problem of natural evil, not caused by humans, although some Christians would argue that this natural evil is cause by fallen angels, although in my opinion, that idea is very unlikely. Others might argue that although suffering and evil exist, we get closer to God by acting morally through suffering. This follows the idea of soul-making, which is backed up by the story of Job in the Bible, who suffers great hardship because of a wager God has with Satan. This also suggests that evil is a mystery and we should just accept it and not question God. For these reasons, I think that evil does exist and that although moral evil can occur as a result of human action, natural evil can’t be brought on by humans and therefore it must come from God."

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