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GCSE: Morality of War

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  1. Religous Studies Marks Gospel Unit P

    This was the sect known as Christians.'' Persecutions gradually began in a devastating manner. There were arrests and trials - not that any of them were fair. Tacticus described the events as follows, ''Those who confessed to being Christians were at once arrested, but on their testimony a great crowd of people were convicted, not so much on the charge of arson, but of hatred of the entire human race.'' Although a few think the persecutions weren't even connected to the fire, but to do with the fact that the Christians refused to worship Nero and didn't pay taxes.

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  2. Senior Project

    (Effects/Video) The impact of television violence may be immediately evident in the child's behavior or may surface years later. According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children, when children see super heroes beating villains with violence, they learn that fighting is the preferred method to resolve the conflict. The American Psychological Association estimates that the average American child or teenager views 10,000 murders, rapes and aggravated assaults per year on television. Over 1,000 studies and reviews have found that exposure to heavy dose of television violence increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior. Hundreds of studies on the effects of television violence on children and teenagers have found that children may become "immune" to the horror of

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  3. The question is, what is happiness? And is technology being exported to benefit the poorer nations, or only to profit the exporters?Otto Ullrich in his essay "Technology" considers these questions, taking as a starting point the end

    Truman's hopes seemed to have been in vain. In this essay, Ullrich discusses the expansion of science and technology into Third World countries, and the problems this expansion, often referred to as Westernization, has created. After World War II, industry in America and Europe started expanding rapidly. Most of Europe had been destroyed and there was a need to rebuild its industrial infrastructure. Also, after two devastating wars it was important for countries to increase their military capabilities. Many believed that if the democratic countries of Europe had not disarmed after World War I, they would have been able to resist Hitler.

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  4. Domestic violence

    variations found in the definition of domestic violence which often results in confusion as to what actually constitutes to criminal behaviour; these factors will all be addressed in this essay. The Government defines domestic violence as "Any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality." (www.crimereduction.co.uk) However, there is no universally accepted definition of domestic violence; it varies widely from government level to researchers and most importantly, the victims themselves.

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    Verbal/psychological violence is a form of violence done without touching the victim's body. The assaults are made viciously on the victim by destroying personal belongings, family heirlooms, or the family pet. The destruction is done on purpose and the psychological impact may be as devastating as a physical attack. Many of the assaults are forms controlling behaviours. One of the most common examples of psychological violence against women is intimate partner psychological abuse. Some examples of psychological/verbal violence done by intimate partners, especially in the developing countries, are restictions or attempts to prevent contact with other men by becoming angry

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  6. Religion, Peace and Justice

    Although many Christians believe that war is wrong, some Christians do take part in war as they believe that the bible teaches them teaching that permit war. God gave people the ability to reason. War may be justified. "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth". (Exodus 21) shows that punishment shall be appropriate to the crime. Many of these Christians use violence simply as a form of self-defence. Some Christians are such strong believers, that they will sacrifice their life for their beliefs; these Christians are known as Martyrs.

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  7. Describe the teachings and beliefs of Christians about death and what might happen afterwards.

    Heaven is referred to as a "white" and God is said to be sitting on "a great white throne" Revelations 20. "Hell" in the English language comes from Old English, "Hel", meaning underworld. They teach that hell is place that you spend eternity without God's presence. Many Christians used to believe that hell is a physical, fiery place where you spend eternity being tortured. They believed this because they associated it with the rubbish dump, Gehenna, outside of Jerusalem where fire was constantly burning.

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  8. Manichean psychology and violence

    Hegel continues to say that a human's search for recognition is not one of peace. A struggle will ensue that will give rise to the master-slave dialectic. But as Bulhan (1985) points out, neither adversary must die or else recognition will not take place. Therefore each adversary must take on opposite behaviours - "one risking life till recognized, the other submitting for fear of death" (Bulhan, 1985, p. 103). Whereas Hegel approached the subject of oppression from an academic perspective, Fanon wrote about it from lived experience, he could identify with the victims of oppression (Bulhan, 1985).

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  9. Negative language - Positive message? Does exposure to media violence have a negative effect on you?

    So although on the surface there is a lot of negative language could you see the positive message? Eminem is a significant example as his controversial music has triggered many protests against his explicit lyrics and has been said to cause people to act violently, but can he be completely blamed for other people's actions? Are his lyrics often misinterpreted? In one of Eminem's popular songs called 'Sing' he raps "They say music can alter moods and talk to you, But can it load a gun for you and cock it too?"

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  10. 'If the government wants to make a serious impact on the crime problem it should concentrate resources not on tackling street crime but on violence in the family home.' Discuss.

    Domestic violence and child abuse are not a political or public concern and as such they are usually omitted from national crime statistics. Until rather recently violence in the family home was a hidden crime, hidden from public awareness and discussion. Close personal relationships are developed around the unit of the home, separate from the outside world, without interference from the state. If there were problems in the family that may include violence they were seen as social problems that required welfare institutions to become involved; therefore they were not classed as a crime in the same contexts as other crimes that happen outside the home.

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  11. Nelson Mandela, "Little more than a terrorist" or "An abused leader of his people"?

    Many people might say that Mandela was "little more than a terrorist"; this is because in 1961 the ANC resorted to violence after the Sharpeville Massacre. Many innocent people died when groups under order from the leaders of the ANC decided that force was the best option. In Source A, Mandela explains his links with communism and he says that the ANC has worked with them even though he gives a good reason. Anyone who read this source would have thought that communism was bad because of what had happened in Russia and other countries, in the Suppression of Communism Act of 1950 the NP implied that anyone who used change by the promotion of disturbances and disorder were communists.

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  12. What is 'intimate violence'? How do different theorists attempt to explain it?

    One in three reported violence from their partners (reference a website for statistics). It is evident that women from all over the world are experiencing domestic violence but why do women experience such abuse from their partner? The issue domestic violence has a range of definitions, the sociologists Kelly defines sexual violence as 'Any physical, visual or sexual act that is experienced by a woman or girl, at the time or later, as a threat, invasion or assault, that has the effect of hurting her or degrading her and/or takes away her ability to control intimate contact' (1988:41).

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  13. What are the characteristic features of Reliabilism, and how reliable is it?

    I shall outline the main concept of the theory and then analyse its reliability. The notion that reliability played the central role in the analysis of knowledge and justified belief was first proposed by Frank Ramsey (1929). Reasoning that justification and reliability are naturally connected, Ramsey suggested that in order for one to assume a belief as knowledge it must be true, certain, and obtained by a reliable process. For what is reliable and true will also be rational. A.P.Griffiths followed this view in 1967 by saying one can only know p if the method used for arriving at p is demonstrated to consistently achieve the same conclusion.

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  14. The family is often described as 'A Haven in a Heartless World'. Discuss this statement with reference to Domestic Violence.

    As notions of control feature heavily in feminist debates surrounding the issue of domestic violence, it may be argued that this issue raises the concept of the split between the public and the private spheres of social life. An article by Larkin and Popaleni (1994) develops this theme further. They claim that, "...inquiry into the arena of the 'private', therefore makes it possible to understand broader political relations inculding males' harassment of females in the 'public' sphere." (Larkin and Popaleni, 1994.

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  15. We live in a world of armed conflict - Explain what differing Christian beliefs of armed conflict might be.

    Nuclear warfare is achieved by putting radioactive substances in a warhead which on collision will cause mass destruction. Christians believe in Jesus Christ and they listen to his teachings and do there utmost to follow his example. Christians have different views on war and these views can be supported by the bible and teachings of the church. In the bible there are passages that support war and violence if necessary. When Jesus was alive, Palestine was occupied by the Romans and the Jews were controlled by them and subjected to their laws. In 'The Spirit of the Lord' Jesus proclaims that he will 'Bring good news to the poor, proclaim liberty to the captives, and set free the oppressed' This is a passage that rebels against the Roman rule and has a violent tone.

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  16. Explain the beliefs Christians hold about their responsibilities for those at the beginning and end of their lives.

    Because life is a gift, it should be nurtured. Jesus' attitude to children was important and the basis of Christian beliefs about the beginning of life. When the disciples rebuked the children Jesus said 'Permit the children to come to Me; do not hinder them; for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these.' He also said; "Truly I say to you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God like a child shall not enter it at all."

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  17. "So when you give something to a needy person, do not make a big show of it, as the hypocrites do in the houses of worship and on the streets." In this assignment I will examine what Christians believe about their responsibilities for others.

    It makes people lazy and keeps them poor." I will then give my own opinions on the statement. AO1 In this part of my assignment I am going to look at why Jesus and the bible are important for Christians. I will then look at the Christian values and then look at what Christianity teaches about helping others. In Christianity, Jesus is important for various reasons. Jesus was the first Christian and without him Christianity would have never become a religion. Christians believe that Jesus is God's revelation. One reason that Jesus is important to Christians is because they believe Jesus died to set the people of the world free from sin. This belief is called the redemption.

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  18. There is a large amount of violence amongst football fans. I want to find out the reasons for this, and see what people's attitudes to the people committing the violence.

    My aims are to try and find out people's attitudes towards people causing the violence, causes of the violence, if the amount of violence has decreased or risen, social class, age, gender, ethnicity etc. of the people causing the violence, stereotypical views of the people causing the violence. In this project I am going to try and find out what people's opinion of a 'football hooligan' is. Waddington quotes Melnick's definition of football hooliganism as 'physical assaults on opposing fans and police, pitch invasions, throwing missiles, verbal abuse, vandalism, drunkenness, theft, possession of an offensive weapon...

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  19. Determinants of Domestic Violence

    This is more likely to happen in violent men during an argument in instances high tension. It isn't just a man that can be guilty of domestic violence women can also be guilty. It is unlikely that they will assault the male, but can be violent towards the child if she feels that she can not control him/her. In 1999 the government set up a campaign to raise more public awareness into domestic violence. This was called "break the chain" and involved England and Wales.

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  20. There is a massive difference between rich nations and poorer ones, which grows larger due to debts and trading laws.

    Jesus taught to share your riches among the poor and you will not need your money in heaven. So do not save what you don't need, share it with others, as you are no different in God's eyes. He also taught that people who did not do this would not get into heaven. "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of God" (Luke 18:25). Most of Jesus' teaching concerned stewardship and that a good steward would use their money and possessions wisely.

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  21. Christian teaching reflects on what they believe - views on death and the after life are always defined

    There are two main Christian beliefs as to what happens when a person dies. These are known as "Separate Soul" and "Bodily Resurrection." Christians who believe in "Separate Soul," feel that after death, the soul leaves the body and goes to Heaven, Hell or Purgatory. Christians who believe in "Bodily Resurrection" think that after death, the whole body will be raised, just as Jesus was. "I am the resurrection and the life, whoever believes in me will live even thought he dies." This Bible quotation from John 11:25 supports the idea that traditionally, Christians assumed that the resurrection would be physical.

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  22. War in the modern world includes terrorism and the threat of nuclear war. Explain how the Bible, the church and the teachings of Jesus may guide Christians in these matters.

    I says that warriors "Will beat their swords into ploughs" meaning that the soldiers of Earth will become as peaceful as the farmers. "Nation will not take up sword against nation." Obviously saying that nations should be and will be at peace with one another. "no-one will make them afraid" (speaking about every man on Earth). This is very significant. It says that when God brings peace, there will be nothing for men to scare people with. This is important because it is saying that all means of war will be taken away, therefore saying that they are bad.

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  23. What Teachings would I include in a Christian Booklet on Warfare

    I will also look at some specific church views, such as the Quakers, who are a church that believes in pacifism and love. The just war theory was developed in the 17th century and was written to try to make it possible for a nation to defend itself against an opposing army or to conserve human life while still complying to Christian beliefs and teachings. It separates hostilities into two classes; an armed attack against a peaceful society and an injurious action taken against the same.

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  24. To what extent if at all might a religious ethic be pacifist?

    It does not therefore mean it is acceptable to allow yourself to be exploited. Because of this, pacifism does not directly correspond with a Christian ethic, for whilst a Christian should act fairly, force may still be considered necessary, for to not rightfully defend yourself indicates little love for yourself. These personal enemies of pride, sloth and anxiety are considered to produce an unloving attitude towards yourself but also prevent you loving your neighbour, defeating the Christian ideal of agapev. Pacifism overcomes such problems by taking a variety of forms. Whilst the absolutist stance of rejecting any form of violence correspond greatly with the New Testament teachings that we should 'turn the other cheek

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