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Physics of Rockets

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Rocket Science

By Justine Hyu

Abstract: The affects of physics on the rocket was evident when analysing the actual flight of the rocket. A comparison of flight predictions and the actual flight demonstrated how that in real life situations, nothing was ideal and that there was a number of factors which would affect the rocket in flight. However, model rocketry is an effective way to develop a greater understanding and to visually exhibit Newton’s laws, velocity, acceleration and drag.

Aim: The aim of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the physics involved with model rockets, by designing, constructing and launching a rocket with a standard motor, and compare calculated flight predictions involving, velocity, acceleration, maximum height, time and drag with those based on the actual launching of the rocket.

Apparatus:

  • Cardboard
  • Body of rocket- cardboard tube
  • Strong yarn
  • Elastic bands
  • Rubbish bags
  • Ruler
  • Straw
  • Scissors
  • Sticky tape
  • Glue Gun
  • Wire
  • Wadding
  • Electronic scales
  • motor

Procedure:

The rocket was first designed to ensure the basic requirements of a model rocket such as a fins, detachable nose cone, recovery device, shock cords, launch lug, engine mount and plug were being included.  Firstly, fins of the rocket were constructed with cardboard by tracing a right angled triangle of base 8cm, height 13cm, with a 2.5cm in width rectangular strip against the 13cm height. This was then cut out and used as a template for the other fins. Six fins in total were cut out, then paired and glued together (the rectangular strip of the triangle were not glued together) so that there were in total three, sturdy fins.

...read more.

Middle

a=-9.8ms¯²

t=?

image09.png

    =3.67s

Displacement:

image10.png

s=?

u=35.987ms¯¹

a=-9.8ms¯²

t=3.67s

image57.png

    =66.08m

image12.png

maximum height= 14.39+66.08

                                  =80.47m

What was the total flight time if the recovery device did not open?

Time:

image10.png

s=-80.47m

u=0ms¯¹

a=-9.8ms¯²

t=?

image20.png

    =4.05s

Total flight time= 0.8 + 3.67 + 4.05

                             = 8.52s

Ejection charge for the recovery device is delayed 6s maximum after thrust phase.

So at 6.8s during the flight the ejection should have occurred. This is at 2.33s when the rocket is falling.

Displacement:

image10.png

s=?

u=0ms¯¹

a=-9.8ms¯²

t=2.33

image58.png

   = -26.6m

 has another 53.87m with the parachute open

Terminal velocity is when image59.pngimage59.png and is when an object reaches its highest possible velocity- acceleration is 0 and the velocity is constant.

image59.png

image60.png

Terminal Velocity:

image19.png

k=0.0020689

image61.pngimage61.png 0.0020689image62.pngimage62.png

image64.png

v=22.35ms¯¹

 the equations calculated previously will be inaccurate in real life situations as the rocket will not be able to have velocities greater than 22.35ms¯¹, so that means lower velocities, less height, less acceleration and less flight time.

With Drag

Flight predictions were made with the inclusion of drag as a factor. This was done by calculating the average ideal velocity and then finding the average drag, using the k value calculated from the wind tunnel.

image65.png

image66.png

Average Velocity:

image65.png

u=0

v=35.987¯¹

image67.png

          =17.99ms¯¹

Average Drag:

image66.png

k=0.0020689

image68.pngimage68.png=17. 99ms¯¹

image69.png

            = 0.66958N

To find image44.pngimage44.png

Drag is now considered in these calculations, and therefore flight predictions in comparison to the ideal situations should display lesser velocities, accelerations, displacements and time, because drag is affecting the overall resultant force.

image71.pngimage70.jpg

image72.png

image73.png

image03.png

image74.png

      =4.2574N

image05.png

image06.png

        = image75.pngimage75.png

        =38.87ms¯²

Velocity:

image08.png

v=?

u=0

a=38.87ms¯²

t=0.8s

v=31.096ms¯¹

Displacement:

image10.png

s=?

u=0

a=38.87ms¯²

t=0.8s

image77.png

    =12.44m

To find image52.pngimage52.png

...read more.

Conclusion

According to video footage the whole flight takes place in 5.6s, taking 2.16s to reach the maximum height and 3.44s to fall. This would mean that the rocket would have not been able to eject the recovery device whilst the rocket was in flight.

Rocket Flight from 0-0.24simage23.jpg

Time (s)

Distance (m)

Velocity (ms¯¹)

Change in Velocity (ms¯¹)

Acceleration (ms‾²)

0

0

0

0

0

0.04

0.0409

1.0225

1.0225

25.5625

0.08

0.3068

3.835

2.8125

70.3125

0.12

0.6136

5.113333

1.278333

31.95833

0.16

0.9614

6.00875

0.895417

22.38542

0.20

1.8

9

2.99125

74.78125

0.24

2.88

12

3

75

  Avg. change in velocity:

                                              1.714286

These results were derived from the video:

Time (s)

Distance (m)

Velocity (ms¯¹)

Change in Velocity (ms¯¹)

Acceleration

 (ms²)

0

0

0

0

0

0.04

0.0409

1.0225

1.0225

25.5625

0.08

0.3068

3.835

2.8125

70.3125

0.12

0.6136

5.113333

1.278333

31.95833

0.16

0.9614

6.00875

0.895417

22.38542

0.20

1.8

9

2.99125

74.78125

0.24

2.88

12

3

75

Avg. change in velocity:

1.714286

Time (s)

Average Velocity (ms¯¹)

Average Displacement (m)

0

0

0

0.04

1.714286

0.068571

0.08

3.428571

0.274286

0.12

5.142857

0.617143

0.16

6.857143

1.097143

0.20

8.571429

1.714286

0.24

10.28571

2.468571

Average acceleration is the gradient of the line that plots the average velocity versus time graph.

Average Acceleration= 42.85714ms²

image24.png

image25.png

image26.pngimage27.png

image28.png

image29.png

Idealistically, the graph of the velocity in the first few seconds of flight should be linear, displacement-time a curve, and the acceleration constant until the rocket becomes closer to the point of terminal velocity. These graphs are a visual representation of the unpredictability of real life situations, showing the affect of external factors on the experiment.

Conclusion:

This experiment was effective as it demonstrated the physics involved in rocketry such as Newton’s laws, velocity, acceleration and the affect of drag upon objects. Calculations of flight predictions and the actual flight characteristics exhibit that real life situations are different from predictions and ideal situations, showing that there are many inconsistencies, errors and factors which affect the flight. Improvements maybe made to improve results and calculations.

Appendix:

How to make the rocket:

image30.jpg

image31.jpg

image32.jpg

image34.jpgimage35.jpgimage36.jpgimage33.jpg

image37.jpg

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.info-central.org/welcome_design.shtml

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/rocket/rkthowhi.html

http://www.physics.ubc.ca/~outreach/phys420/p420_96/glenn/gwp2a.htm

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/rocket/rktstab.html

 Turnitin Digital Receipt 

image38.png

image38.png

paper title:  

rockets

paper ID:  

80493046

author:  

Hyu, Justine

image38.png

...read more.

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