• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16

Mao and China Revision Guide

Extracts from this document...


Revision Guide Dates of Leadership 1949-1976 Country and Regime Replaced China, Qing dynasty , Guomindang (GMD), A republic(a form of government in which there is no monarch and power is exercised by elected representatives) took power after the 1911 revolution, until Mao came to power Conditions which allowed leader?s rise to power There were two main revolutionary parties, the Nationalists (Guomindang) (GMD), led by Chiang Kaishek, and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), led in the late 1920s by Mao Zedong. When China's most populated and richest parts were occupied by Japan, the GMD had a half-hearted response which compromised the power they had. The Civil war between the CCP and the GMD Internal turmoil- warlords Failures of previous regime The Qing dynasty's inability to protect China By 1900 over 50 of China's key ports and towns were in foreign possession * in 1937, Japan militarily occupied many of the richest and most densely populated parts of the Chinese mainland * The Nationalist did not respond with full heart * The CCP led by Mao Zedong went from its bases in Jiangxi (Kiangsi) and Yanan (Yenan) in a spirited resistance to the Japanese occupation. Leader?s Political Party and Political System The CCP, Chinese Communist Party, and Communist political system Means by which power was obtained In 1945, when the Japanese were defeated: * Mao's CCP had become a more powerful force in China than the Nationalists. 4 years later Chiang and the GMD forces were forced to take refuge on the island of Formosa (Taiwan) after suffering a series of shattering military defeats at the hands of Mao's armies. Steps to gaining power 1893: Born in Hunan province 1901-6: Attended primary school 1912: Joined anti-Qing army in Hunan 1912-18: Trained as a teacher 1918: Joined the Hunan independence movement 1919: Worked as a librarian at Beijing University Helped to organize strikes in Hunan 1921: Became a founder member of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) ...read more.


The Party also feared the strategic position of Xinjiang as it shared borders with Pakistan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan, all of them strongly Muslim. And in order to prevent the chance of this happening, Mao condemned all independence organizations in China?s border regions. Social Policies: Women and different minority groups Social Policies: Relation to peasantry The Cultural Revolution led to deaths of people, and brought about a chaos in China that would take a long time to stabilize. Mao's aims were not met, for example, his concept of the revolution was not continued after his death. Mao employed strategies during the Cultural Revolution that led to disorder, violence, and loss of life of the people of China. Mao failed to design a viable and enduring alternative political order to replace the one he sought to overthrow, or to transform the political resources he had mobilized from a destructive force into a constructive one. Mao was unsuccessful in designing effective populist institutions to replace the Leninist Party-state. When looking in the agricultural and economical side of the Cultural Revolution it can be seen that, grain production rose in both 1966 and 19697, fell substantially in 1968, but then regained 1966 levels in 1969. Industrial output fell 13% in 1967 due to the disruption of the normal work of both factories and transportation lines. Industrial output in 1969 exceeded the level of 1966. By the beginning of 1971, industrial production had achieved full recovery. Therefore, the effects if the Cultural Revolution on the economy were limited. The Cultural Revolution was a failure for Mao, and China, on the political and social reforms, while it barely affected the economy and industry, except for some times (1967). * Ensuring Mao stays in power until he dies, eliminated all of his enemies * his ideologies to stay after he died, which did not work out * deaths Mao employed strategies during the Cultural Revolution that led to disorder, violence, and loss of life of the people of China. ...read more.


In 1964, he concluded that ?the present method of education ruins talent, and ruins youth?. He advocated that a new system based on 'the union of education and productive power? replace the old learning from a book and not life. The most positive feature, of the Maoist policies was the expansion of education in the rural areas. State aid to relatively well-off urban districts was reduced, and funds were redirected to the poorer areas, primarily in the countryside. During the "cultural revolution decade" (1966-76) there was a dramatic increase in primary and secondary enrollments in the countryside, with primary enrollments increasing from about 116,000,000 to 150,000,000 over the decade and secondary enrollments (including the addition of two-year junior middle school classes to village primary schools) rising from 15,000,000 to 58,000,000. The cultural revolution called for local community control of the school system. Primary schools were generally to be managed by production brigades and middle schools by communes, with the aim of providing peasants a greater voice in selecting teachers and teaching materials, in recommending students for admission to middle schools and universities, and in refashioning the curriculum to meet particular local needs. Tuition fees, entrance examinations, and age limits on student attendance were abolished. Many of the spare-time and work- study educational programs introduced during the Great Leap Forward were revived. Changes in admissions criteria and curricula in middle schools and universities enhanced opportunities in higher education for rural youth. GENERAL: Successes and Failures Ten most important events/facts about the ruler (facts that should be in most any essay) 1. One of the major successes of Mao?s revolutionary strategy was his flexibility and identifying what worked in any specific place at any specific time. 2. Mao?s flexibility in his rise to power made him very successful (shifting policies and positions in order to appeal to the largest base, being willing to abandon key places to survive?Jiangxi in 1934 and Yanan in 1947) By 1927 3. 2 million peasants had joined the Peasant Associations ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. The Fear of Communism and its Effects on Australia in the 1950s and 60s. ...

    Australia was fully supporting Vietnam in the war, until not long after the US began withdrawing their troops from Vietnam. With the US's such dramatic move, Australia finally realized that the Vietnam War wasn't their war to fight. The only reason Australia had originally sent troops over to assist the non-communist South Vietnam was to insure Australia's safety and security.

  2. French Revolution: Success or Failure?

    Therefore, the French Revolution created another positive point and effect through the New Constitution. Most of the Constitution that created during the Revolution era was to give equality and right to the French citizens. Clearly, the French Revolution produced lots of contents as well as clubs that helped and improved the French society.

  1. Current Affairs: Pakistan Flood

    Therefore, it is against all our values for the image of corruption and terrorism to cloud our humanitarian concerns. Canadians raised over 84.6 million in 4 weeks for the Haiti earth quake, while only 6.6 million in six weeks for Pakistan disaster relief.

  2. French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon - revision notes

    The most famous porcelain factory was built at Sevres and Madame was a protector of most of the French authors. She was also a protector of the editors of Encyclopedia. Madame was blamed of the defeats during Seven Years War.

  1. Italian Unification Revision Notes. Italian Politics in 1815

    � None of these, however, came anywhere near success. Their main effort was probably to allow Mazzini's political enemies to spread scare stories. What did Mazzini achieve? How significant was he? � Mazzini gave tremendous impetus to Italian nationalism. � No one else campaigned for long or so tirelessly in the cause of a united Italy.

  2. IB History HL, Extended Notes: Russia, the Tsars, the Provisional Govenment and the Revolution.

    Harvests remained normal and exports had ended, distribution was the problem. Cities got 25% of grain harvests in 1914 15% in 1917. 3. Food, fuel, and goods shortage, high prices, inflation, unemployment. Workers opposed regime, peasants opposed loss of men. Kulaks profited through all of this Tsarina and Rasputin 1.

  1. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    Anti-Zionists believe that the wave of bombings which took place between April 1950 and June 1951 were perpetrated by Zionist agents in order to cause fear among the Jews and promote their exodus to Israel. Many Iraqi Jewish immigrants shared this belief, but there is no solid evidence, and the motivations of the bombings remain a contentious issue.

  2. Analyse the conditions and the methods used which helped in the rise to power ...

    However, this was too little too late and in 1949 an economic collapse occurred. Paper money worthless and bartering became norm, meaning that less tax was taken in and the government could less afford to repay their debt. Chiang did not act decisively to stamp out corruption or to remove

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work