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# Size of Crater

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

International school of Phnom Penh                           Physics

Candidate Name:                                     Page  /

Candidate Number:

Size of Impact crater

Introduction:

Craters form when an object strikes the surface of a planet, moon, or other space object. Craters are found here on earth as well as the moon and most other planets. The energy from the impact of an object such as a meteorite is transferred to the surface that it strikes. The energy from the impact forces the surface it strikes to move. The crater can change depending on the size, mass, and speed of the object and the type of surface it falls onto. The angle that the object strikes the surface will also be a factor.

Aim:

When a falling object hits the ground some of the kinetic energy it has is transferred to the ground, and if the force of the fall is large enough, a crater would be created only if there is no rebound or bounce. In this investigation we are going to find out the effect that different masses of object dropped from a fixed height of 2.05meters has on the depth of the crater formed in a box of powder (starch), and the time taken for it to reach the surface of the starch.

Prediction:

I predict that the greater the mass, the larger the impact crater.

Hypothesis:

As the mass of an object increases, the potential energy would increases due to the equation gpe=mgh, for this reason, the kinetic energy will also increase, and this causes an increase in the size of impact crater. If the mass is increased, but the gravitational force and height above the sand stay the same, the gravitational potential energy will increase, and also the kinetic energy of the impact will increase too.

Middle

-2m)

Uncertainties in Depth using ruler (x10-2m)

Mass of the ball  (x10-3kg)

Uncertainties in Measuring the mass of the ball (x10-3kg)

1

2.3

±0.05

7.7

±0.05

2

2.1

±0.05

7.7

±0.05

3

2.3

±0.05

7.7

±0.05

4

2.1

±0.05

7.7

±0.05

5

2.5

±0.05

7.7

±0.05

Average

2.26

±0.05

7.7

±0.05

• In this reading, there is one number that is quite different from the others, even though the results in the second reading seem to be close enough. 2.50cm deep of crater shows that it might be an outlier in this row of data, because 2.3 and 2.1 appeared more than twice, but 2.5 only appeared once.

UNCERTAINTIES of  BALL 2 -Depth of crater measured in ruler (*10-2m):

 Trials Depth of the crater(*10-2m) Minimum(*10-2m) Maximum(*10-2m) Differences compared to calculated average 1 2.3 2.25 2.35 +0.04 2 2.1 2.05 2.15 -0.16 3 2.3 2.25 2.35 +0.04 4 2.1 2.05 2.15 -0.16 5 2.5 2.00 2.10 +0.24 Average 2.26 2.21 2.31

Ball 3 (x10-2m):

 Trials Depth of crater (x10-2m) Uncertainties in Depth using ruler (x10-2m) Mass of the ball  (x10-3kg) Uncertainties in Measuring the mass of the ball (x10-3kg) 1 2.5 ±0.05 12.7 ±0.05 2 2.6 ±0.05 12.7 ±0.05 3 2.3 ±0.05 12.7 ±0.05 4 2.7 ±0.05 12.7 ±0.05 5 2.7 ±0.05 12.7 ±0.05 Average 2.56 ±0.05 12.7 ±0.05
• This result seem to be a little different from the previous readings, the minimum number is 2.3cm and the maximum is 2.7cm, and the gap between them is 0.4cm which is quite a lot, and it could have affected the number in the average, by lowering down.

UNCERTAINTIES of  BALL 3-Depth of crater measured in ruler (*10-2m):

 Trials Depth of the crater(*10-2m) Minimum(*10-2m) Maximum(*10-2m) Differences compared to calculated average 1 2.5 2.45 2.55 -0.06 2 2.6 2.55 2.65 +0.04 3 2.3 2.25 2.35 -0.26 4 2.7 2.65 2.75 +0.14 5 2.7 2.65 2.75 +0.14 Average 2.56 2.51 2.61

Ball 4 (x10-2m):

 Trials Depth of crater (x10-2m) Uncertainties in Depth using ruler (x10-2m) Mass of the ball  (x10-3kg) Uncertainties in Measuring the mass of the ball (x10-3kg) 1 2.5 ±0.05 17.7 ±0.05 2 2.8 ±0.05 17.7 ±0.05 3 2.4 ±0.05 17.7 ±0.05 4 2.7 ±0.05 17.7 ±0.05 5 2.8 ±0.05 17.7 ±0.05 Average 2.64 ±0.05 17.7 ±0.05
• I think that the highlighted number has lower the average down, since every number is above 2.5cm except for the 2.4

UNCERTAINTIES of  BALL 4-Depth of crater measured in ruler (*10-2m):

 Trials Depth of the crater(*10

Conclusion

• When the ball is dropped some of the starch might get stuck on the bottom of the ball, and it has a little impact on the measurement of depth.
• Also, by using a soft string, it is hard to measure and it made the uncertainties bigger, because soft strings bent every time when we are trying to measure the depth.
• The scale for meter ruler was not sensitive enough. This leads to results being in accurate due to the results being hard to get right. However, this inaccuracy is a systematic error because it would affect all the results.
• Also, by using powder,

If I repeated the experiment again, I would change the angle in which the ball is dropped, to see what affects it has on the size of the crater, because changing the angle would simulate more realistically of what happen in reality, because things don’t normally drop straight down from 90 degree.

In this experiment I could have been improved in a few areas. Most noticeably area is in the measuring of the depth of the crater itself. A ruler, I believe is not the most accurate of measuring devices.

• The second matter in which the experiment could have been improved is that the surface of the powder was difficult to assure that the surface was even. This could have had an effect on the results.
•  I could have repeated the experiment more than five time to get a better average, and increase the independent variables to see if there is a pattern between the rate of increasing the mass of the ball and the depth of the crater it has.
• And also, it would have been better, if we used light gate to measure the time, because by using stopwatch it creates a large number of uncertainties, because of human error, and by using light gate, it has less error compared to when using stopwatch.

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