• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology Essay-1

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Peterson and Peterson (1959) Aims: To prove that things only stay in short term memory for around 20 seconds and then, if it is not rehearsed, it disappears forever. Procedures: Participants were given sets of trigrams to learn and then tested on their recall. They had to recall them after 3, 6, 9, 12 or 18 seconds. They also had an interference task, counting backwards, in threes from a random number. The independent variable was the time delay and the dependant variable was how good the recall was. Findings: After 3 seconds: 80% After 6 seconds: 50% After 18 seconds: Less than 10% Conclusions: They had proved their hypothesis, there was very little left of the trace after approx. 20 seconds. It also proved that there was a distinct difference between the LTM and the STM. Criticisms: It lacks mundane realism because the likelihood of the recall of trigrams in real life probably wouldn't happen. The trigrams are not meaningful. Other research has shown that more meaningful things are remembered. Bahrick et al (1975) Aims: They aimed to test VLTM. They wanted to see whether long term memory was infinite. Procedures: Participants included 392 American ex-high school students aged 17-74. Recall was tested in four ways. 1) Free recall of the names of as many of their former classmates. ...read more.

Middle

Findings: After 3 seconds: 80% After 6 seconds: 50% After 18 seconds: Less than 10% Conclusions: They had proved their hypothesis, there was very little left of the trace after approx. 20 seconds. It also proved that there was a distinct difference between the LTM and the STM. Criticisms: It lacks mundane realism because the likelihood of the recall of trigrams in real life probably wouldn't happen. The trigrams are not meaningful. Other research has shown that more meaningful things are remembered. Bahrick et al (1975) Aims: They aimed to test VLTM. They wanted to see whether long term memory was infinite. Procedures: Participants included 392 American ex-high school students aged 17-74. Recall was tested in four ways. 5) Free recall of the names of as many of their former classmates. 6) A photo recognition test. 7) A name recognition test. 8) A name and photo matching test. Findings: 90% accuracy in face and name recognition after 34 years. 80% accuracy for name recognition after 48 years. 40% accuracy for face recognition after 48 years. 60% accuracy for free recall after 15 years. 30% accuracy for free recall after 30 years. Conclusion: Classmates were rarely forgotten once recognition cues had been given. This supports the idea that people have VLTM. Recognition was better than recall. ...read more.

Conclusion

2) They do not have to be negative, they can be positive as well. 3) They are as if a photograph were taken and stuck in someone's memory. 4) They are enduring and accurate. 5) They seem to contradict the idea that thorough processing in STM is needed for it too pass onto long term memory. 6) They support the idea that emotional factors and distinctiveness are essential in remembering. Repression ==> Freud (1915) said that 'repression' was a way of protecting the ego (conscious mind) from uncomfortable memories. Motivated forgetting. Traumatic memories are more likely to be forgotten than happy ones. Anything that has been forgotten, could have been repressed. Eyewitness Testimony ==> The evidence provided by people who witnessed a particular event or crime. It relies on recall from memory i.e. the descriptions of criminals. Reconstructive Memory ==> Bartlett believed that when we remember something, we only store elements of it. ==> We reconstruct the gaps in the memory with our own schemas. ==> Schemas are ready stored opinions and expectations which we use for quick judgements. ==> Our culture, beliefs, prejudices and previous experiences will all help us with these reconstructions. ==> The way information is initially perceived and stored is affected by schema and stereotypes. ==> Research has shown that people can be mistaken for their initial encoding of events, leading to a mistaken recall. ==> So schemas and stereotypes are used when forming a memory but also when trying to reconstruct it. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Testing the effect of different types of music on memory.

    have 20 words per list; giving approximately 5 seconds per word to memorize. In order to equalize the difficulty in each list of words; commonly used words will be chosen to be on the list. These word lists will be selected from the categories animals, colours, food and common school objects all mixed together.

  2. An experiment investigating the effect of background music on students ability to recall a ...

    This design was employed as effects such as fatigue, boredom and previous exposure to the material provided are unlikely to factor into the results. By using this method, demand characteristics are less of a problem as the participants are kept naive to the stimulus material until during the experiment.

  1. The effect and role of organization on memory and recall

    Bower et al. suggest that subjects who were given the word in an organized format were able to work out a certain construction principle. By using this principle, they could reconstruct the word list from memory. Whereas, the subjects given the randomly formatted words were unable to detect a construction principle thus their recall result was poorer.

  2. IA stroop effect

    Last updated: 4 January 2010. Viewed 3 February 2010. * J Ridley Stroop. http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Stroop_effect. Last updated: 13 April 2008. Viewed 17 February 2010. * Stroop Effect. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Stroop/. Last updated: unknown. Viewed 19 February 2010 ARTICLES * Atwood, J. Psychology Internal Assessment: The holy guide to writing your report.

  1. Psychology Internal Assessment

    Some of the participants would spend a large amount of time deciding which option to choose on the likert scale which could have altered their first impressions of the person. By using the opportunity sample, we could not control subject variables.

  2. An experiment to investigate the effect of categorical organisation on the recall of words ...

    under different conditions the experiment were using independent samples which reduced order effects. Participants with learning difficulties or dyslexia were sensitively identified on the consent form (Appendix 1) and their data was eliminated by discarding their data once collected. This improved the accuracy of testing the hypothesis by controlling a variable.

  1. Internal Assessment : Loftus and Palmer Study

    pay attention to it and answer randomly in a way that can affect our results . A limitation that affects the study is that eye witness reports are of personal experiences , are of people having been in the crime or event , in this case students are only watching

  2. Psychology IB Abnormal Notes and Essay Plans

    E.g. feeling intense anxiety, unhappiness, stress 2. Often need to seek help 3. Consider when behavior violates social norms or makes others anxious 1. Cultural diversity affects how people view social norms (behavior expectations with in a group) 2. Some cultures may consider it being abnormal, whilst another culture disagree Paragraph 1 1. Importance of Diagnosis 2.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work