Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process with reference to research studies

Models are attempts to describe complex phenomena; they are changed and developed based on research findings. They multi-store model suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin, and the working memory model suggested by Baddeley and Hitch are two models describing the cognitive process of memory.

Atkinson and Shiffrin were among the first to suggest a basic structure of memory, with their multi-store model. They model was based on two assumptions: first, that memory consists of a number of separate stories and second, that memory processes are sequential. The memory stores are seen as components that operate in conjunction with the permanent memory stove through processes such as attention, coding, and rehearsal. People need to pay attention to something in order to remember it, and they need to give the material a form which enables them to remember it. Rehearsal means keeping materials active in memory by repeating it until it can be stored. A strength of this model is that it puts the process of memory into simple, specific steps. This model sparked research based on the idea of information processing. The model contains several stores. Information from the world enters sensory memory, which relates to different senses. Then some information will continue to the short-term memory (STM), which needs rehearsal to stay in there. The long-term memory is conceptualized as a vast storehouse of information.

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Baddeley and Hitch suggested the working memory model, based on the multi-store model. However, they challenged the view that STM is a single store. Working memory is a model of STM and it includes several components, whereas the multi-store model of memory includes one. This explains one of the weaknesses of the multi-store model because it is elementary compared to the working memory model. The working-memory model starts with the central executive, which is kind of a controlling system that monitors and coordinates the operations of other components, which are called the slave systems. These components are the episodic ...

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