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Verbal memory differences between the sexes
The first 200 words of this essay...
Prior to formulating a hypothesis, research relating to memory and previous studies had to be taken into account.
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968, 1971) developed a model called the multi-store model. This model describes memory in terms of flowing though a system. In other words, information is detected by the sense organs and sent to the sensory memory. However, this information will only be stored if it is rehearsed. If it is rehearsed, the information enters the long-term memory (LTM) and is stored; otherwise, the information will be lost.
Craik and Watkins (1973) identified two types of rehearsal; maintenance rehearsal where the word is repeated several times and elaborative rehearsal where the word is fully understood by the subject. From this, they concluded that maintenance rehearsal was sufficient enough for storage in the short-term memory (STM) but elaborative rehearsal was needed to keep information in the LTM.
Also, the words at the end of the list were still stored in the STM and therefore could still be recalled. This is known as the recency effect. However, the words in the middle of the list were not well recalled because there was no time to rehearse
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