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University Degree: Medieval History

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  1. causes of third world debt

    Why did the creditors allow the situation to balloon to such proportions? How would these unpaid debts affect the world economy in general? Despite the loan amounts being substantial, why had these countries remained destitute, if not poorer? The aim of this essay is in the ensuing sections, the discussion will focus firstly on the root causes of the third world debt. Secondly, there were several solutions proposed to reduce third world debt. Whether they were effective or not remains to be seen. Several factors were attributed to third world indebtedness. Towards the end of 1990, third world debts combined ballooned to $1.3 trillion.

    • Word count: 2862
  2. What common features can be discerned in the careers of Tanchelm, Henry of Le Mans, Peter of Bruys and Arnold of Brescia.

    It is suggested, however, through Henry's alliance with Peter of Bruys, sometime before c.1133, that Henry takes on a more heretical stance.17 Henry is arrested by the bishop of Arles and brought before the Council of Pisa in 1135, where he is ordered to give up his itinerant preaching and re-enter a monastery.18 Whether Henry initially obeyed this order or not is not known because in 1145 he is the object of Bernard of Clairvaux's mission against heresy. After this time, however, Henry is not mentioned again in the sources.19 Tanchelm preached against the materialism of the church in the

    • Word count: 3206
  3. The European Voyages of Discovery

    They behaved just as their ancestors had before them, fishing and hunting, seeking shelter and crafting weapons. In many ways they can be compared to the hunter gatherers of the late stone age. The Europeans on the other hand had advanced to a far greater degree in terms of technology. They had graduated to become farmers, they had began trading, built cities and towns and now they were the architects of great civilisations. However in some respects they were as savage and primitive as wild animals. When in the 15th and 16th century these two orbiting and alien cultures crashed together they became joined in a juxtaposition that was to have both positive and negative consequences.

    • Word count: 1454
  4. Witchcraft. In this essay I am going to look at two types of witchcraft and attempt to compare them. I have chosen witchcraft amongst the Azande and witchcraft in medieval Europe.

    Witchcraft involved the renunciation of God. The witch would make a pact with the devil and this is how she gained her powers. Keith Thomas states that the church constructed witch craze by producing literature on witches or devils worshippers and highlighting how the witches were thought to have conducted themselves. The belief in witches was an explosive force and witchcraft expanded after the Renaissance. Trevor-Roper believes that the church exploited pagan beliefs. The theory of Satan's Kingdom was produced with it's hierarchy of demon's and witches.

    • Word count: 1853
  5. medieval women-wealth or love?

    And moreover, it is a partnership which is a result of love. In the Medieval times however things were much different. The Medieval period is widely thought of as a romantic era, with the idea of "romantic love". However, the idea of "courtly love" is also prominent in medieval society Marriage was a basic economic device of medieval society. Often there were cases of "from rags to riches", where luck lifted families from obscurity to greatness. The economic transferal that ensured the family's survival tended to take precedence over other considerations. Marriage partners were chosen to help improve the economic state of estates, farms, or businesses.

    • Word count: 1613
  6. Early medival europe

    Without the domination of Rome and its "Great Tradition," regional elites became more self-sufficient and local "small traditions" flourished. Self-sufficient farming estates called manors were the primary centers of agricultural production. Manors grew from the need for self-sufficiency and self-defense. During the early medieval period a class of nobles emerged and developed into mounted knights. Feudalism was developed. Feudalism is a medieval social system: the legal and social system that existed in medieval Europe, in which vassals held land from lords in exchange for military service.

    • Word count: 521
  7. What was the impact of the Black Death on European society? What do you think were the most salient consequences?

    Part III. A longer essay. 50 points. Choose One. 1. What is The Last Duel all about. How is the history of the 100 Years War woven into the narrative of this personal conflict? What social and cultural facts serve as contexts for the story? What can you learn about medieval society from this book? 2. How did politics and the formulation of new ways of thinking about power and sovereignty serve as a response to the crisis. Provide examples (Castile, Italy, and other places)

    • Word count: 1378
  8. The scale of the raids, the density of the settlements and the degree of destruction have been greatly exaggerated'. Discuss this assessment of Viking activity in England in the ninth and tenth centuries

    Early Viking raids in the late eighth and early ninth century were, it is generally agreed, relatively sporadic and small-scale, averaging no more than fifty ships, and targeted at monasteries, such as Lindisfarne, and trading centres (Campbell). It is not until the mid-ninth century, that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle begins to refer to the (now Danish as well as Norwegian) Viking forces as 'Micel here', which has traditionally been taken to mean 'great army'. The ASC claims the armies of 865 and 871 numbered 150-250 ships, which indicates that there were thousands of invaders.

    • Word count: 2801
  9. To what extent did a new concept of

    It was generated by a revival of interest in classical literature and the classical ideals. Humanism was a rejection of the medieval mindset and worldview and the intellectual constraints of Scholasticism. Humanist scholars reveled in the intellectual freedom cultural riches of the classical pagan world. A hint of Humanist thought could be seen in the medieval poet Dante (1265- 1321) who selected Roman poet Virgil as his model. Petrarch (1304-1374) was the first poet to truly reflect the spirit of the Renaissance. His poems were penned in Latin hexameter as did the classical Roman poets.

    • Word count: 3705
  10. Patricia Schreckengost

    After the Reformation, scholars had more freedom to explore these fields (Spielvogel 571). Another possible influence was the work of the humanists (Spielvogel 572). Humanism, which spread throughout Europe during the Renaissance, focused on the potential and achievements of humans and practical studies of human life (Henry 10). The Scientific Revolution researched and elaborated on the ideas of humanists (Henry 13). Additionally, humanist schools began incorporating scientific education, which helped provoke the expansion of the Revolution (Burns 91). Renaissance art also may have contributed to the Scientific Revolution (Spielvogel 572). Renaissance art portrayed real items, since most art was done by direct observation (Henry 10).

    • Word count: 3716
  11. Analysis of the Statutes of William the Conqueror

    In 1050, William was threatened by the King of France and the Count of Anjou both significant players in contemporary French politics. He married Matilda of Flanders. This marriage secured the support of Flanders and helped minimize the threats. In 1060, the King of France and the Count of Anjou died. That enabled William to secure and create his Norman Empire. William took advantage of the lack of leadership and conquered the region of Maine in 1063. After, King Edward of England secured his throne he invited William I to England and nominated him to be the next heir to the throne.

    • Word count: 1669
  12. Scottish is known as Scottish Standard English (SSE) considered. SSE is the form of the English language used in Scotland. It is normally used in formal, non-fictional written texts in Scotland.

    Lexis General items are outwith, meaning outside of; pinkie for little finger; doubt meaning to think or suspect; and wee, the Scots word for small. Correct is often preferred to right meaning morally right. Culturally specific items like caber, haggis, and landward for rural. There is a wide range of legal and administrative vocabulary inherited from Scots. depute /'d?pju?t/ for deputy. proven /'pro?v?n/ for proved, and sheriff substitute for acting sheriff. Phonology Pronunciation features vary among speakers, and there are regional differences: * It is a rhotic accent, with r usually pronounced as [r] (an alveolar trill), though sometimes flapped [?] or constricted [?].

    • Word count: 608
  13. How far did the Reformed Church make good the deficiencies of the late medieval church in the decades immediately after the reformation of 1560?

    In the early 16th Century, Scotland was dominantly a Catholic nation. John Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland. His strong personality and passionate preaching made him one of the most powerful Scots of his day. Under his leadership, the Church of Scotland adopted a declaration of Faith, a form of government, and a liturgy. Reformers wanted to reorganise church finances to support Parish churches, schools and universities. They wanted to get rid of the devotion to the Pope, confessions to priests and the worship of Saints.

    • Word count: 1924
  14. Were late Medieval and early Modern Europeans obsessed with death?

    The environment had a major impact on the population in the 14th Century, as the people of Europe saw a severe downturn in the climate manifested in a long run of short wet summers and long cold winters. This was caused by freak sunspot activity by the solar systems star. The result of this was the expansion of glaciers in the north, and generally wetter, colder weather for most of Europe. For the mid-north or 'Golden basin' of Europe, the main wheat and barley supplier this was disastrous.

    • Word count: 2016
  15. Malraux's Man's Fate: History and Life.

    The wealthy citizens and landowners were abusing the peasants. The attempt to gain firearms would double their chances of success over the revolutionary troops of the Kuomintang. Malraux, wanting his readers to understand the reason behind the revolt, described scenes of deprivation and violence. Kyo, the main character in the story, does everything he can to lead the revolt. The prelude to the revolution is a general strike followed by an attack on the authorities. When Kyo arrives, troops were waiting everywhere.

    • Word count: 1743
  16. In the Wake of the Plague.

    The life of the aristocracy was one of very high income. They were very rich people and had vast income from their landed estates and from the work of peasants. They lived in large houses and were very contented. They ate very elaborate food, guzzled enormous amount of wine, and dressed exceptionally well. Being a military society, the downside of their life was that they were frequently engaged in local, national, and international wars. Then the Black Death struck. The Plague was a "democratic epidemic" because it affected both poor and the rich members of society.

    • Word count: 1633
  17. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, revolutionary ideas about society and government began to affect much of the world.

    Saint Domingue only complicated this situation with its diversity and racial separation. Saint Domingue consisted of the white planters, petit blancs, free persons of color, the domestic slaves, field hands, and the maroons. The white planters were wealthy whites who owned plantations and many slaves. They were united in support for slavery since their wealth depended on the labor of slaves. The petit blancs where the less powerful group of whites who "were especially anti-black, seeing free persons of color as serious economic and social competitors."2 The free persons of color were black slaves who had received freedom and were quite wealthy.

    • Word count: 1574
  18. In his article "The populations of France and Quebec", Franois Drieu tries to establish a comparison between the French and the Quebeckers.

    At the end of the introduction, he clearly outlines the three parts of his argument: he gathers the differences between the two populations in three main groups: the distribution of the population, its origin and its mentality. Each paragraph contains an idea, examples and/or data. Nevertheless, if you examine the article more closely, the structure turns out to be too mechanical. With three paragraphs of the same length, the question is oversimplified. Human thought is not necessarily organized in three points; it is just a rhetorical ideal.

    • Word count: 1960
  19. Account for the pattern of population growth in Europe, 1500-1800

    Similarly, disease would have catastrophic effects on population growth given the lack of sophisticated remedies available to combat them. From 1500 Europe's population was still experiencing growth from the period of post Black Death recovery that had ravaged through Europe. During the century Europe's population as a whole began to increase possibly due to a relative absence of destructive wars and a lull in the frequent attacks of epidemics. However this growth was uneven with the highest rate of population growth in the North in the Scandinavian countries, Britain and the Low Countries. The Scandinavian countries by 1600 registered on advance of two thirds of their 1500 levels.

    • Word count: 1710
  20. Canada French: an island in a sea of English.

    It's Norman French the one used by de Maupassant in his short histories. There are anglicisms that have crept into France which have been rejected in Quebec but however there are lots of English words in French-Canadian and they usually come from North American society. Of course the North American world of English is not just Canada, but the United States. The whole North American continent north of Rio Grande with its power, greed, generosity, all its energy and contradictions, is English-speaking. North American English societies have had such success at assimilating other languages and they have developed almost contempt for others.

    • Word count: 491
  21. America has been blessed with more than her fair share of stellar individuals.

    Perhaps the arena in which they worked was not as well known or less exposed to the world, but their work and achievements demand the same accord as their more published cousins. One of these individuals was the famed "Swamp Fox" of the Revolutionary War's southern campaign. Francis Marion was born in 1732 in Berkeley County, South Carolina, the youngest of six children of French Huguenot settlers. As a child, he explored the surrounding swamps, until he knew them like the back of his hand.

    • Word count: 1303
  22. Did The Black Death Cause Widespread Political Change In Western Europe?

    and claim that it started the rebirth of Europe (Lienhard) Prior to 1348, there were a number of social problems that existed in Western Europe. A lot of these problems I would argue were a result of the over-population of villages. The population in England in 1300 was about two to five million, (*1) and many of these villages, for various reasons did not have enough food to sustain this number of people. Factors such as the over cultivation of land, and poor crop yields meant that the peasants (the majority)

    • Word count: 1937
  23. Laicism In Media.

    The first relationship between religion and media is the negative effects and pressure of religion on media that restricted the freedom of ideas. It can be seen many examples that support this thesis in history and today. In Medieval Europe is one of the best-known and clear example for the pressure of religion in past. In this era, for example, church prevented the new scientific ideas against their religious ideology. As one of the illustration, "Galileo was called before the Inquisition in Rome and forced to take back his statements that the sun, not the Earth, is the center of the solar system"(The Age of Enlightenment, 2002).

    • Word count: 1034
  24. "What were the major differences between French and Italian secular music in the mid fourteenth century and how did the two traditions draw closer towards the end of the century?"

    introduced the idea of polyphony into four of his Lays. This however is not representative of the norm. They were basically irregularly shaped, and the rhythmic technique was emblematic of the six rhythmic modes. They were very simple, rhythmically, and consisted mainly of longs and breves. The unbalanced form of Lays depicts the Lay principle of musical change, and they tend to be through composed, with continually changing line lengths and rhymes. The length of the individual lines is itself stated by the length of the melodic phrase. The Lay tends to be in 6/4 or 6/8 time throughout, incorporating the initiative of internal rhyme or brief lines which come together to form one longer line.

    • Word count: 1317
  25. The search for the sublime life.

    In an attempt for forget harsh realities, nobles often turned to idealizing political and religious institutions. The most idealized medieval tradition was the heroic convention of chivalry because it was a continual illusion of grandeur, romance, and power. During the Middle Ages, Christianity was considered a unifying force of culture and chivalry was supposed to serve as the embodiment of the grace of Christians. According to Huizinga, most people consider the Age of Chivalry as one of gallant behavior, honor, duty, courtly love, and bravery. Thus, the image of the knight quickly becomes a combination of aestheticism and eroticism (89).

    • Word count: 1125

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