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University Degree: Medieval History

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  1. What is a revolution?

    On the other hand if popular societal examples were examined, such as the Industrial Revolution or the Sexual Revolution where there was no such upheaval of leadership or power, this notion of revolution would be inappropriate. In Touraine's book, Social Transformations of the Twentieth Century he writes, "When the twentieth century closed, the challenges and problems of the time were social, dealing with questions of work, production, social classing and social rights.2" He goes on to voice that in present day, our society is more afflicted by the results of these social phenomena than by the methods at which we reach the results.

    • Word count: 617
  2. Famine and the Black Death: Social and Economic Change in Medieval England.

    The structure and perspective upon which these authors undertake their studies are of paramount importance. These four books are notable examples of genre. Two, those of Campbell and Hilton, are collections of studies and essays respectively. Their subtitles make the difference in approach and focus between them clear. Before the Black Death consists of, "studies in the 'crisis' of the early fourteenth century", while Class conflict and the crisis of feudalism concerns itself with, "essays in medieval social history". The issue of 'choice' relates to both these books for a number of reasons. The synopsis of Campbell's book asserted that five of the essays (excluding Barbara Harvey's introduction), which discuss demographic developments, the agrarian economy,

    • Word count: 4058
  3. Industrial and Agricultural Revolution.

    A revolution can be, violent although a revolution is a change of some kind and does not have to be violent. A revolution could be a change in the social structure of a community, a change in political power and government structure, or a religious change. A revolution could also be an advance in industry or agriculture as featured in this project. A revolution can be a sign of discontent or civil disobedience although if a peaceful revolution is taking place, people who do not like what is happening sometimes become violent and cause trouble.

    • Word count: 3068
  4. The Spanish Inquisition

    As a result of the Crusades and the Reconquest of Spain, Medieval Spain was a nation inhabited by various people who spoke different languages, were governed by different laws, and believed in different religions. The central theme in the history of medieval Spain-or, more accurately, of the separate kingdoms Spain comprised-was disunity and plurality. The various peoples who lived in the Iberian Peninsula lacked a common cultural tradition.2 While this mixture of different groups provided Spain with rich diversity, it caused authorities to crave unification for the country.

    • Word count: 1848
  5. Differences between Ancient Rome and Medieval Cities.

    One specific item that was very popular for trading was spices. It was an easy good to transport, you didn't have to pay a lot and it didn't go bad. When the boom in trade and commerce began it changed the system of feudalism into more of a city state ordeal. The cities became not only a center of trade but also cause the emergence of industry. The immergence of industry called for the division of labor. This broke up the main task into many little ones which caused the amount of production to increase tremendously.

    • Word count: 695
  6. Similarities and differences in approaches of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X to the grievances of Black-Americans.

    L. King, 1967, p.103) - that affect the Negro life in the United States. I completely agree with King's point of view concerning these factors. In my opinion, having been a slave in the past and the lack of opportunity to establish a strong family has served as the main obstacle to forming the "black solidarity" in the United States. Through history these factors have impeded mobilization of black-American groups to struggle and weakened the power of the black movements. Moreover, they have served as the main source of the differences between Negro Americans and other immigrant groups.

    • Word count: 1497
  7. The process of this essay is to compare and contrast different shades of Nationalism, beginning with Wolfe Tone and his brand of secular ideology.

    The first part of this essay will discuss the ideology and aspirations of Wolfe Tone. Theobald Wolfe Tone was born in 1763 and he came from a middle- class Anglican background. He graduated from Trinity College and became a lawyer. He began his revolutionary life in the United Irishmen and was later to become a central figure in this organisation. This movement was founded in Belfast by middle-class radical Presbyterians. An event which was to have a profound effect on Tone was the French Revolution and it was the ideals of this secular movement that Tone felt, could have the same affect in Ireland.

    • Word count: 1603
  8. The system of serfdom in Medieval England.

    He was left with little pay for his duties and the amount of land he received from the lord was usually insufficient to maintain a descent quality of life for him and his family. The living conditions of serfs were very basic with only rudimentary living essentials available to them. Their houses were usually made of mud and straw mixed in with upright twigs for the walls, and the roof was thatched leaving little or no ventilation.1 The serf and his family made many of their own utensils and other tools required for survival and some of these are outlined

    • Word count: 2291
  9. To what extent did the castle change the nature of warfare in the eleventh and twelfth centuries?

    With the appearance of castles in the eleventh and twelfth centuries we saw the emergence of the local power of the lord. Indeed, castle building and other defensive works had 'its roots in fundamental social change.2' This was brought about by the military threat of marauders from the Viking, Magyar, and Saracen raids. Some historians such as T B Bisson in 'past and present' argue that the period of the eleventh and twelfth centuries saw a 'feudal revolution,' as there was a transformation of power from the political (maintenance of public order through public officials)

    • Word count: 1572
  10. Can We Distinguish Between a ‘Revolution’ and a ‘Social Movement’? To What Extent Can It Be Argued That the Age of Revolutions Is Over?

    There are several other movements of recent origin that do not fit neatly into any of the above groups, these include the animal liberation movement and the Trade Justice Movement. Although few movements have revolutionary aims and often exist as a fluid element within political and social systems, most movements and revolutions are born from a dissatisfaction with existing lack of equality, justice and liberty. The strength of this desire for equality, justice and liberty and its mass appeal to individuals is an important factor in the success of revolutions and movements.

    • Word count: 3946
  11. As it occurred in most spheres of the progressing 14th century society, the renaissance in the realm of scientific inquiry was not a process which took hold of the entire population, but rather was the contributions of the select few.

    However, during the Renaissance this doctrinal passivity began to change. The quest to understand the natural world led to the revival of botany and anatomy by thinkers such as Andreas Vesalius during the later sixteenth century.3 The middle Ages were centuries of stability in the intellectual world. All scientific and philosophical expression was monitored extensively by, and most often produced from within, the Church. During the middle Ages, the Church ruled conclusively on a number of truths about the natural world, which it claimed were undeniable. These alleged truths were produced by Biblical study and the widely accepted Aristotelian system, which became official Church doctrine.4 The Aristotelian system defined the laws of physics erroneously in many cases.

    • Word count: 3004
  12. The important role of ringforts in early medieval Ireland society.

    As animal bones were found, the evidence suggests there was a cattle pen present. Large fields, which supported wheat, barley and oats, surround the ringfort, which are in turn surrounded by banks and ditches. The presence of the animal pen show that cattle were a key element in early medieval society both as economic currency and social status. According to Stout (1997), most Irish ringforts are of early Christian origin, originally constructed in the period 600-900 AD. However, most forts were occupied for long periods after this, and they remained one of the primary dwelling structures up to the 14th century, after which time fortified tower houses succeeded them.

    • Word count: 1376
  13. Museum Report - The Cloisters - In medieval Europe, religion formed the center of life for almost everyone, and it created a unifying force throughout the continent. The church governed every aspect of life

    As technology developed, advances were evident in art as well as churches and monasteries. Painters developed techniques that allowed them to represent their subjects with more realism and precision. Paintings began to appear lifelike, and even three-dimensional. New methods of construction allowed stone structures to be built higher and with more intricate details, as the concern of collapse under the weight of the stone was alleviated. The mention of architecture raises the question of art versus craft, and it is a valid concern. While in today's industrialized world, there is a fairly clear distinction, this has not been the case in all societies.

    • Word count: 600
  14. What does the story of Abelard and Heloise tell us about the changes that took place in European thought and culture in the tw

    autobiographical Historia Calamitatum and the exchange of letters that followed between him and his young student Heloise who later became his lover, wife and sister in religion. Abelard and Heloise reveal much about themselves and the culture of the twelfth century through their writings. Theirs is a story about passion, faith, heresy, brutality and intellectual brilliance and through it was can question medieval attitudes to sex, gender, marriage as well as faith and learning. Peter Abelard (1070-1142) was one of the great wandering scholars of the twelfth century.

    • Word count: 2563
  15. Why was England, rather than Holland, France and China the first country to go through the industrial revolution?

    France had a 3-4 times bigger population compared to England where the growth of human population went on quite slow during the early 1700s. In countries where there was a shortage of labour, as in England, the factory owners became desperate to find out new methods to save work and money. In France, production could be improved, without drastic innovations, just by employing more people. Therefore the market for new technologies weren't that big. Furthermore, the industrial revolution got delayed by the years of war in France.

    • Word count: 1142
  16. Why did the renaissance begin in Italy by the 1400's? There are many reasons for the renaissance beginning in Italy by the 1400's, the result of the crusades, an increase in trade and knowledge an increase

    The black plague was a disease that killed millions of people. If it wasn't for the black plague the renaissance would have not began mainly because it broke down the feudal system in Italy and let peasants become a higher class type of person, many peasants moving to other countries then returning with wealth and new technology. This new class of people wanted bigger and better things with many villages competing against each other on who could create the best houses, sculptures and paintings, and now they had money to pay for the things.

    • Word count: 558
  17. "A Medieval Society Existing in a 19th Century World"- How Accurate is This Statement With Reference to Russia by 1855?

    After 1815 cheap spinning machines and yarn were available from England which helped boost the Russian cotton industry further. The cotton industry was also relatively new which meant it suffered less from the usual restrictions, and by 1850 Russia had the 5th largest cotton industry in the world. This shows that Russia was not totally behind other countries in Europe at this time, but was developing along side them, and progressing instead of reflecting medieval times. In terms of money, Russia was ahead of medieval society due to the introduction of paper money, and coins were no longer based on their metal value as they were in medieval times.

    • Word count: 1572
  18. The Black Death

    Without any doubt, the Black Death disrupted every aspect of medieval life but all to differing extents. Although all areas inter-link and have an immediate effect on the others, it is easiest to survey societies success in coping and the changes that were made by looking at the areas of: demography, sociology, economy, industry, politics, the church and medicine, individually. The most apparent and devastating affect of the plague was on the population of Europe. The approximate rates of death as a result of the plague are augured over by historians continually although most will accept that charting even approximate rates of mortality is impossible due to inaccurate local and regional records of current population and lack of full recording of the outbreaks of plague3.

    • Word count: 3706
  19. How economically marginal were women in Western Europe between 1000 and 1300?

    The lives of noble women throughout the middle ages are well documented as they had access to education and many women indulged in writing literature such as Angela of Foligno 1248-1309 who lived in Italy and the Lais of Marie de France. Historians debate the extent to which noble women held power and their contribution, if any, to the economy. During this period, noble women were often placed in positions of great responsibility when their husbands went to war; as a result many wielded great economic power.

    • Word count: 2219
  20. To what extent were the revolutionaries in France and Austria responsible for their own failure?

    The 1848 revolutions were considered as a "leaderless" revolution. Most of the uprisings in the period were more like public activities without some capable and popular leaders to lead the mass. In Italy, the once considered liberal Pope Pius IX refused to take up the responsibility in leading the revolutionary forces to rise against Austrian reactionary forces. This led to the neutrality of the Papal States in the revolution and her sound existence in under Austrian restoration while the Austrian Army suppressed the revolutionaries. Another factor contributing to the failure of the 1848 revolutions was the lack of organization between revolutionary groups.

    • Word count: 716
  21. The Role of the Plague in the Tragedy of Athens.

    Thus, the plague allows him to analyze not only human virtue and honor, but also human response to adversity, and namely democracy's failure in maintaining order in time of crisis. On the other hand, his contemporary, Sophocles, in the tragedy of "Oedipus Rex" - written shortly after the plague occurred - dramatizes not only Oedipus' harmatia, but he is highly conscious of the increasing social and political confusion of Periclean Athens. The consequences of the plague make him realize the increasingly cold distance between the humans and the gods, and their diminished and almost inexistent role in the Athenian society.

    • Word count: 1950
  22. What is the relationship between Revolutions and International Relations?

    Others believe that revolutions occur due to sociological determinism, found back on the writings of Hume and Mill, that every event has a cause and it is the most general and comprehensive of all the natural laws3. Contemporary sociological theories focus on the need of modernisation as the root cause of modern revolutions, when others as Eric Voegelin and Norman Cohn. Emphasise the recurrence of utopian and millenarian motive in history and look for chiliastic elements in contemporary secular movements.

    • Word count: 3253
  23. 'How far did European Society become less religious as a result of the 'Age of Revolutions'?

    Other factors must therefore be taken into account, however for the purpose of this question I shall concentrate specifically upon how the 'age of revolutions' modified or altered the shape of religious consistency. This is because; in order to respond to the question as fully as possible it is necessary to narrow the answer down. Indeed, I shall be taking into account the specific examples of the French Revolution in 1789 and the Industrial Revolution within England. And we will no longer have nobles or priests "We will win, we will win, we will win,"" Equality will reign throughout the land/world And the Austrian slave will follow it.

    • Word count: 2485
  24. The Black Death.

    The disease probably spread from Europe to India, and then on to Italian seaports and the rest of Europe. The Black Death first appeared in Europe in Italy in 1347. It arrived on trading ships that probably came from the Black Sea, past Constantinople and through the Mediterranean. People soon learned of the horror of the disease, and fled the city, thus spreading the disease to other destinations in Europe. It reached Europe's ports first, including Messina, Genoa, Venice, Barcelona, Marseilles, and Valencia. By June of 1348, almost half of Europe was afflicted with the plague. By 1349, the plague had reached almost all of western Europe and half of central Europe.

    • Word count: 939
  25. In terms of believing in a cause no man was more fervent than Evariste Gamelin. Gamelin committed himself to the cause of the French Revolution completely.

    Gamelin embraced the ideals of the Revolution due to his desire to help others, and be a part of something, but during his time as a magistrate he lost perspective and became a producer of misery rather than a bringer of aid. Gamelin latched onto the ideals of the Revolution from the very beginning. The reader must ask oneself why Gamelin would join the Revolution, and embrace it so completely.

    • Word count: 504

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