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University Degree: Anthropology

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  1. Rational recreation.

    It was not just prudishness behind this, but anxiety about the influence of this brassy medium. (In 1950 up to one third of the British population were going to the cinema at least once a week.) In the 20th century, high culture drew energy from an antagonism to popular culture. As John Carey's Intellectuals and the Masses (1992) documented, much of modernism in art and literature grew from a revulsion for mass culture (including mass literacy and mass political enfranchisement). Indeed, the idea of the masses, suborned by cultural technology, replaced that of 'the people', clinging to vulgar traditions and pastimes. The very phrase 'popular culture' signifies a later development whose effects are still with us.

    • Word count: 2241
  2. Some people think that the people who are over 55 years old should be retired to give opportunities to young people. I agree with this point view and I listed three reasons as follows.

    It is not only for our young generation's growth, but also The view that animals are our friends has been throughout the history. It is so cruel that people think wild animals shouldn't be protected in the new century. They think it is a waster of resource and money. I don't think so; I hold the opinion that we should try our best to protect them by various methods. The reasons I listed as follows. 61w First, wild animals related to our human beings' lives.

    • Word count: 1704
  3. Body Modification, feminism and postmodernism

    Our culture shows the need for continuos improvement to our bodies. We are often either trying to improve our bodies to the point of perfection or we are trying to move away from our socialised culture. This can be seen with those who diet and body build trying to gain perfection, which has been defined by the mass media. Others are trying to reject the 'norm' and become more individual they do this by getting piercing or tattoos. "I make a statement, I've chosen myself.

    • Word count: 2360
  4. Assess the policies directed towards the indigenous people of Latin-America during the twentieth cen

    While in Mexico, as in post-revolutionary countries such as Bolivia and Peru in the latter half of the twentieth century, the creation of citizenship for Indians and the redistribution of land to the benefit of the large majority of indigenous people constituted significant components of indigenismo policies, Manuel Gamio's reconstruction of the archaeological site of Teotihuacan, thereby transforming the site into Mexico's greatest public monument, provided the vehicle for his major achievement, namely the reinstatement of Indian civilisation as the "glorious foundation of Mexican history and culture" (Brading 1988, 76).

    • Word count: 3237
  5. First They Killed My Father - account of the Khmer Rouge 'killing fields' in Cambodia.

    Now, when the only alternative is to stave, I fight others for a dead animal lying in the road. Surviving for another day has become the most important thing for me." While presenting the historical record of the Khmer Rouge reign, Loung reveals her own character as the events in the text are presented chronologically. The traumatic events are etched in the victims mind, "this is Cambodia as a child remembers it" Chronology allows us to see how the Ung members are forced to mature rapidly, develop personally, grow stronger and more resilient psychologically. It also allows us to see her experiences and see how she progressively grows to understand the Khmer Rouge.

    • Word count: 5854
  6. The Red Convertible.

    The book is a collection of interconnected stories focused on the lives of two Chippewa families. She is best known for her novels about the Chippewa. She also published two respected volumes of poetry, Jacklight (1984) and Baptism of Desire (1989). She had several stories in periodicals like the New Yorker, Harper's Magazine, Atlantic Monthly, and Paris Review. Her nonfiction book, The Blue Jay's Dance: A Birth Year (1995), consists mainly of autobiographical recollections and meditations on nature and motherhood. The writing of Erdrich is based on reality situations but she doesn't write a biased opinion about the way the characters are living their lives.

    • Word count: 980
  7. Over the past years, philanthropy in the United States has grown as a trend of status, wealth, and good fortune.

    In spite of these differences, both regions bear similar outlooks pertaining to charity. According to Fukuyama (http://www.charityvillage.com/cv/research/rphl4.html) there are certain nations that enjoy relatively high levels of "spontaneous sociability", where people tend to trust each other more. In particular, Italy's trust level is moderately low. In "high trust" societies, the process of 'giving' has proven relatively easy; people are used to forming associations beyond the family. Hence, the modern business corporation was introduced in places like the United States. In contrast, "low-trust" countries such as southern Italy have grown rich, but with economies based largely on family ties.

    • Word count: 3033
  8. What is the first thing you do when you see someone you don't know?

    I dress according to what type of music and activities I do, so I assume everyone else does. That is why I make these assumptions about people. And there seems to be an association between their dress and their activities. Let's talk about the jocks and how I classify someone as a jock. I see them as the big men on campus, wearing clothes that represent their team and sport they play. They usually wear athletic shoes of some kind. I notice Nike's and Adidas most of the time. The hair style can have a wide range of style, ranging from shaved to long. I see more skaters in my opinion than any other group.

    • Word count: 609
  9. Manipulating the Personal Journeys of Identity: Westernization and the Ottoman and Republican understandings of gender in Turkey.

    The effects of modernization have been influential on the formation of personal and social identities. The construction of gender relations as a result of a myriad of debates on individual identities has been an important area for examining the social and cultural consequences of modernism, which have greatly shaped human interactions into multiple directions. 2 During the early nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire struggled to accommodate its heritage consisting of political, social and cultural structures, institutions and values to the influences of the expanding Western colonial culture. Due to the disintegration within the Empire, resulting to a great extent from the wars and the influence of nationalism in the nineteenth century, the Ottoman society had to find ways to unify the society in the face of the loss of lands and power.

    • Word count: 52766
  10. "Being an ethnographer is to be in two places at the same time"(Pearson, 1993, p. ix in Hobbs and May). Explain this statement, particularly in relation to the concept of verstehen, and illustrate with reference to ethnographic studies.

    Methods include covert or overt research, for covert the researcher doesn't tell the researched they are been studied, it could be argued that this provides a truer picture of a certain group as they are unaware that they are been observed so are not inclined to react differently. For overt research, the researcher can use in depth interviews to gain more information that could not be accessed solely through observation. Ethnographers use a variety of data sources including audio and video recordings, transcripts, interviews and documents.

    • Word count: 1350
  11. Critically evaluate Douglas Kellner's account of the 'Madonna Phenomenon' in his Media Culture.

    through television and video as well as in concert thereby enabling her work to be decoded, allowing the receivers of her message to develop personal views on what is being presented. This is summed up by Cathy Schwichtenberg in her book 'The Madonna Connections' (1993) writing that "Madonna's success may be due less to her artistic talent and more to her ability to tap into and disturb established hierarchies of gender and sexuality". Others, then, would argue against Madonna being a revolutionary transgressor but instead is a success pop star who uses subcultures to elicit a strong interest in her work and further her own ambitions and greed.

    • Word count: 2286
  12. Evaluate the criticism that traditional anthropology fixed cultures into particular places and times.

    These are often referred to as 'techniques of fixity' and range from the language of traditional anthropology to the research method used. Along with a number of other writers Clifford claims that it is the research method used in traditional anthropology that has created the idea of fixed cultures. Since Malinowski's influential study anthropologists have carried out ethnographic research. This involved anthropologists travelling to a place, known as the field, and living within the culture they were studying. Whilst Clifford recognises the advantages of such a method for obtaining detailed, valid data and maintains that such participant observation is "anthropology's most enduring contribution to humanistic study" (Clifford, 1992:99)

    • Word count: 2203
  13. Dealing with the differences in linguistic styles between mainly men and women, but also between people in general.

    They are more open and supportive and above all rather be a group then a hierarchy where one stands out more then the other. Boys on the other hand are in large groups and tend to be competitive and want to stand out more. The more you stand out the more power you have, and the more power you have the more control you have over your group. These groups are where boys and girls tend to learn their conversational styles.

    • Word count: 914
  14. Explore different ways in which theorists of literature have explored the nature of the real.

    The notion of the real has been taken up by various theorists, all presenting their different points of view, and all attempting to achieve and arrive at its closest definition of it. The above quotation is taken from Walter Pater's 'The Renaissance'. An exemplar of Victorian aestheticism and a proponent of the doctrine of "art for art's sake," Pater believed that the ideal life consisted of cultivating an appreciation for the beautiful and the profound. The quotation immediately plunges us into the concept of realism, and Pater gives it even further depth because he states that perceiving something as it really is, is actually the meaning of understanding true criticism.

    • Word count: 3537
  15. Critically discuss the emergence of contemporary dance music and club culture. What processes underlay its development and how did these clash with or support mainstream political values?

    With the more liberated and open approach to sexuality, advocated by the hippies, gays were slowly becoming more acceptable however it wasn't until after the stonewall riots in 1969 that gay clubs began gaining any form of recognition and respect. The authorities were still strongly against the clubs and gay bars and in 1969, police arrested employees in the stonewall inn for selling alcohol without a license. A large, protesting riot emerged whereby the homosexuals revolted trying to set fire to the building the police had locked themselves into.

    • Word count: 1534
  16. Issues Of Cross- Cultural Consumption And Subcultural Dress: Analysis Of A Street Style Outfit In The Fashion Gallery At Brighton Museum.

    It is here therefore that my biography takes its direction. Historical Insight Into Cross-Cultural Consumption The changing attitude, economically and intellectually, of Western Europe and its development of nation- states coupled with increased nationalist spirit spurred on the urge to explore beyond a non-European world. This ultimately gave rise to what has been termed the discovery of the New World. This discovery would, however, serve to perpetrate many afflictions upon the peoples of this world for the second half of the millennium. With the arrival of the Spanish to the Americas in the 1500s, there came with it the arrival of a formidable and ruthless oppression, a cultural Armageddon, or from a Western perspective, the practice of Christianity and the ideals of 'civilization'.

    • Word count: 4084
  17. Definitions of popular music.

    The film is about an aspiring performer trying to break through the barriers of inner city society. The song reflects this and is one of the reasons why it was chosen as the film's main track. The song is clearly of the Hip-Hop and Rap genres with identifying features including the spoken vocal style and simple but effective bass line. The lyrics common in Rap tunes consistently use rhyme, with the 'AB' rhyme pattern spread over whole verses. The vocal line also uses the snare drum to emphasise this. Lose Yourself has a tense, urgent sound. Eminem's rap is, as usual, technically strong.

    • Word count: 2514
  18. To What Extent are Cultural Differences a Hindrance to Effective Communication? How Can They be Overcome?

    Typically, such fears consist of being judged by others, encountering miscommunication, unintentionally causing offence or appearing condescending. Conversely, an individual's aspirations for interacting with culturally diverse people may include extending one's knowledge and worldliness, developing comradeship or simply entering into a dialogue of some sort. Why should we concern ourselves with the impact of cultural differences upon effective communication? Almost without exception, communication is ubiquitous in people's daily lives. It is also a truism that culture is at the root of many misunderstandings and conflicts at many different levels, ranging from interpersonal to international. In the face of continuing globalisation and today's international environment, increasing numbers of businesses and organisations work across borders - not just geographic borders but ethnic, religious, organisational and functional borders.

    • Word count: 2959
  19. Globalisation and Caribbean identity.

    Yet, this has not posed any limitations on us as we go through that "awesome process of becoming". We have survived the traumas of separation from the mother country as part of the slave trade and the indignity of the dehumanization of slavery through the use of that creative imagination resulting 'in the germ of a culture which shares more in common than many would care to believe". (Nettleford). Our political systems may differ but this is part of the dilemma of difference which is a manifestation of the complex process of diversity demanding of all of us in the

    • Word count: 2771
  20. The term Postmodernism.

    What is modernism? In order to understand postmodernism, it needs to be explained in relation to its preceding level, modernism. Modernism as described by Kumar (1995) refers to a set f principles governing behaviour and practice. These incorporate progress, reason, rationality, revolution, emancipation and scientific reason, truth and freedom. Kumar writes that Modernity is often associated with the industrial revolution. For Kumar, these set of principles characterising 'modernism' occurred at a specific epoch and names it 'modernity'. While for Kumar there is a difference between modernity and modernism, other writers write as though they are synonymous.

    • Word count: 1833
  21. Select one form of popular culture from among the following: reggae, dancehall, calypso, theatre and poetry. Show how notions of masculinity and feminity are expressed, supporting your answer with examples from the popular culture

    This he terms 'neo-Gramscian hegemony theory'". It is within this definition that dancehall aptly fits as a form of popular culture. That is, according to Norman Stolzoff, "dancehall is not simply Jamaica's most popular form of entertainment and cultural expression, it is also an important institution that generates, mediates and reproduces the social order - that is, the hierarchical divisions of race, class, gender, and sexuality running through Jamaican society. Dancehall has thus played a primary role in the formation of a distinct lower class culture for more than two centuries".

    • Word count: 4776
  22. Giving examples of established and new religions, discuss what you deem to be core features shared by many Japanese religions. How does the emergence of the religious sects reflect the spirit of the times?

    It was not until the 1854 Treaty that "Japan agreed to open two ports to American vessels. This act marked the end of Japan's self-imposed seclusion that had lasted over two hundred years" [Kitagawa: 1966:178.] During the Tokugawa period, there were two main schools of thought - 'opening of the country' (kaikoku) and 'repulsion of foreigners' (joi)" [Kitagawa: 1966:179.] This political ideology provides a parody for Japanese religions. Japan is chiefly a bi-religious country, a blend of Buddhism and Shinto. Although this combination of two religions is practically unheard of in Western religious life, this is seen as more a way of life than just an acceptable practice.

    • Word count: 4206
  23. Subtle Cultural Expansion in China.

    For example, it introduced a kind of birthday parties which was totally obscure to the Chinese culture. McDonald's represents a free place where everyone can sit down, drink a coke and talk or study for hours; such a place wasn't even conceived by the Chinese people. Moreover, it appealed to several social classes because of its clean bathrooms, fast and clean food, the "exotic" American atmosphere, the acceptance of the "queue", the self serving method, and for many Chinese it represents a door towards the rich West. Watson gives the example of some parents bringing their kids to McDonald's because this should be their first step towards Harvard Business School!

    • Word count: 808
  24. “In WhatWays Did Food and Drink Symbolise Power and Authority In Ancient and Early Modern Society?”

    Refined food such as bread, wine and oil were transformed into ideals that symbolised the imperial authority of the Rome.3 "Civilised" man developed rituals and etiquette pertaining to food that elevated him from the barbarism of instinctive gorging and the power elite from the shadow of hunger. While food ideals and communal eating became hallmarks of civility that unified the community, the hierarchical structures that developed within these groups emphasised the status of the powerful in relation to others, and could provide a means to divide and exclude sections of the community, although Montanari explains that cultural cohesion was more

    • Word count: 1813
  25. Violence in the Dancehall.

    Styles of clothing, haircuts, and jewelry worn to dancehall sessions have now become daily garb. These fashion statements are a source of ongoing controversy and they have come to signify a subordinate and oppositional position within Jamaica's race-class hierarchy. Dancehall is also a center of profolic linguistic creativity. Whether from fascination with cultural differences, or fear of its potential to incite rebellion, mobilize political sentiment, or question the moral order that underpins Jamaica's social hierarchy, Jamaica's middle and upper classes have always had to take notice of the dancehall. Dancehall has functioned as a space where the symbolic distinctions and the social divisions of race, class, gender, sexuality, religion, and political affiliation in Jamaican society are made, reinforced and undone.

    • Word count: 4704

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