• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14

Criticism of sustainable development and Sustainable development in the Southeast Asian context

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Criticism of sustainable development: The implementation in Southeast Asia 1. Introduction The concept of 'sustainable development' has become a popular topic of intense debate and extensive discourse since its inclusion in the World Commission on Environment and Development Bruntland Report in 1987. 'Our common future' is now believed to be the discourse of 'sustainable development'. Academics originally thought it was a breakthrough and had the potential to become ethos for further positive economic and environmental reforms. Unfortunately, following the promulgation of the sustainable development concept, its actual meaning became increasingly clouded, with different definitions being adopted across groups. Some people may think that the term sustainable development 'has become more of a catch-phrase than a revolution of thought, and employing its use has simply fuelled the interests of advocates of exponential economic growth, undermining environmental reforms.'(Hove,2004:48). Others contended that the common usage of'sustainable development' was too narrow in its preoccupation with stewardship and the interests of future generations while these were important factors in the concept, it should also include other goals, such as 'providing adequate income...reducing disparities...and providing equitable access to resources.'(Pierce,1992:312). Sustainable development is often discussed as a purely environmental objective, but this paper will explore its broader relevance and its emergence as a new development paradigm at many scales for example political, economic, social and cultural aspects. This paper is going to analyse both the positive and negative points of the discourses of sustainable development and draw out the practical problems that stand within the world today. The essay outlines the issues concerning sustainable development that it has addressed, and even more importantly, what it has failed to address and whether the discussions it can reflected genuinely new ideas about development. Why did the concept of sustainable development emerge? What exactly is this concept of sustainable development and its relevance for different parts of the world and difference scales of application? ...read more.

Middle

Therefore, economic equality is essential to achieve sustainable development. Sustainable development is also dependent upon balancing the interplay of policies and their effective implementation to achieve economic, environmental and social needs. Economic growth requires a secure and reliable energy supply, but it is sustainable only if it does not threaten the environment. Sometimes the policies are mutually reinforcing and sometimes they are in conflict and trades-off will often need to be made. Sustainable development is usually be considered as ideology as it originally appealed most to those preoccupied with the tendencies of capitalist development to deface the world in its haste to convert anything and everything into commodities which could be sold for a profit. Many advocates of sustainable development have seemed to reason within Western traditions that see humans as stewards of Nature, with responsibility for its care. As the environment is placed at the forefront of debate in western societies, increased attention has moved towards so-called 'global' environmental problems such as climate change and the protection of biodiversity. Some people even saw it as Western hypocrisy surrounding environmental issues and sustainable development and spoke of the sovereign right to exploit forest resources. The current universalistic sustainable development discourse does not yet encompass the distinctiveness of certain regional contexts or the specificities within those contexts and thus encounters problems during stages of implementation. Some radical activists even believed that 'there is no form of development, sustainable or otherwise, compatible with the health of Nature as a whole, including human beings within it.' On the other hand, anthropocentric critics believed that sustainable development has the danger of 'throwing the baby out with the bath water' which means that 'reject the essential with the inessential' or to destroy something good with something bad. 4. Sustainable development in the Southeast Asian context Southeast Asia is exemplary in displaying requirements for more 'sustainable' development methods and processes in the midst of the rapidity of political, environmental and economic change. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is important to recognise the relationships between criteria to better understand the forces and impacts of change. For example, while the espousal of a universalistic sustainable development definition is problematic, it is also unhelpful to separate the processes of environmental change from the impact of international economic forces. "The environment in the international economy is an internationalised environment and one which often exists to serve economic and political interests far removed from a specific physical 'location' (Redclift, 1987:79) 6. Reference Brown J.(1996)'What is sustainable development' Global Vistas International Studies Education Project of San Diego (ISTEP). Cochrane, Janet (1996), 'The sustainability of ecotourism in Indonesia: Fact and fiction.' In Parnwell, Michael J.G. and Bryant, Raymond L. (eds) 'Environmental Change in South-East Asia: People, Politics and Sustainable Development', London: Routledge. Elkins, P.(1992) A New World Order. London: Routledge. Eckerberg K. & Lafferty W.(1998) From the Earth Summit to Local Agenda 21: Working towards Sustainable Development. London: Earthscan Publications. Hirsch, Philip and Warren, Carol, (eds) (1998), 'The Politics of Environment in South-East Asia: Resources and Resistance.' London: Routledge. Hove,H.(2004), 'Critiquing sustainable development: a meaningful way of mediating the development. impasse?' Undercurrent[1], 48-54. Mitchell, B (1994), 'Institutional Obstacles to Sustainable Development in Bali, Indonesia.' Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 15, 2, 145-56. Nijkamp, P and Vreeker, R. (2000), 'Sustainability assessment of development scenarios: Methodology and application to Thailand', Ecological Economics, 33, 1, 7-27. Pierce, J.T.(1992), 'Progress and the Biosphere: The Dialectics of Sustainable Development', The Canadian Geographer, 36[4] 306-320. Pinkney-Baird, Jonathan (1993) Agenda 21: Sustainable Development and Volunteering. Volunteer Centre UK. Parnwell, Michael J.G. and Bryant, Raymond L. (eds) (1996), 'Environmental Change in South-East Asia: People, Politics and Sustainable Development', London: Routledge. Redclift, M. (1992), 'Sustainable Development: Exploring the Contradictions', London: Metheun. RUHLJ.B.(1999) 'THE CO-EVOLUTION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE: COOPERATION, THEN COMPETITION, THEN CONFLICT' Duke Envtl. L. & Pol'y F. 161 http://www.law.duke.edu/journals/delpf/articles/delpf9p161.htm#FA0 World Commision on Environment and Development (1987) Our Common Future.(The Brundtland Report) Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Human & Social Geography section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Human & Social Geography essays

  1. Transnational Corporations - the Good, Bad and the Ugly Formatted

    More often than not, those children who make the soccer balls and leather shoes that we use in Australia are the main source of income for the family, and they have little choice but to earn that two dollars a day to feed their family.

  2. To what extent is the west to blame for the failure of the global ...

    There are also not many environmental policies throughout the global south, so overall the multinational companies gain a huge advantage from this as they can go about their business very cheaply and quickly which wouldn't occur in Britain due there being so many regulations etc.

  1. Personal development essay

    During my first term at university every student had to prepare a 15 minute presentation to be presented in front of the class. The class then, as a whole, had to mark each student's presentation individually with criteria the group had agreed on.

  2. Delivering food security through conservation agriculture

    The second argument is the conventional farmers believe that conservation agriculture is a difficult process to be followed. As we all know, current agriculture practiced under smallholder farmers-dominated landscapes and not large scale farming, which is the backbone of global food security in developing world (Horling and Marsden (2011)

  1. Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation on international development: The impact of tourism on development ...

    the most value from this sum, which is a higher percentage donated than any other government in the world. This capital provides the agency with a key tool for poverty alleviation, especially when combined with the in-depth knowledge and experience that Norad has in development.

  2. Does globalization hinder or help wealth creation in development countries?

    of the deficit was caused by an imbalance of trade through importing more capital goods and than exports.

  1. Having (at least in part) addressed criticism for the exclusion of "half the human" ...

    1 Cit. Jons, 2006. Each mediation is a trade-off between the loss of multiplicity, particularity, locality and materiality, and the gain of standardisation, compatibility, circulation, relative universality and what ?..(author) has added is the immateriality. This enables the researcher to be as mobile as their e.g.

  2. Geopolitical Analysis of Regional Security Issues Surrounding Europe

    of history, and first of all of its former permanent will of extra-European conquest, and its inner rivalries. For these reasons, the Near East holds a special place in the European history. AGA The Transcaucasus is not a part of the Euromed area but this ex-USSR region is a part of the ENP.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work