Explore the emergence of environmental debates in development theory over the last fifty years.
Richard Thomas Explore the emergence of environmental debates in development theory over the last fifty years. This essay looks at the background leading up to, and reasons for, the emergence of environmental debates in development theory over the last fifty years. It will illustrate the issues and discourses present in environmental debates, the actors and debators, and with reference to examples from both 'developed' and 'developing' countries, show how environmentalism challenges modern development theory. We start by looking at how environmental concerns, despite their historical presence in ancient philosophies and civilizations (Redclift, 1987), were marginalised through the creation and evolution of the post-war 'development project'. The end of the Second World War in 1945 marked the beginnings of major changes in the theory of development on a worldwide scale. The system of formal colonialism, which accounted for 84.6% of the world's land surface in the 1930s (Jones, 2001), broke down. The US was, by the end of the War, a major world power, holding 60% of the global industrial capacity and looking to secure access to a global market. Europe, Japan and Russia in particular had experienced large-scale destruction and needed to rebuild and strengthen their economies. The ideology of economic development through industrialisation (Keynes' system of global economic
Is Bath a sustainable city?
Is Bath a sustainable city? Bath has a population of around 80,000. It is world heritage city and receives over 2,000,000 tourists a year. It is also an important regional shopping area and serves a large area around it. It is a wealthy city, with house prices considerably above the national average and a high proportion of 'professional' and high earning individuals. Bath has much history surrounding it, and the Roman's aspect is one that attracts many visitors. The Roman baths are one of the top historical monuments in the UK, attracting over 890,000 visitors a year. The cultural attractions of the city have led too much recent in migration and bath is under increasing pressure to meet residents' demands for affordable accommodation, transport and services. The city has a wide range of problems trying to meet these demands as Bath is located in the steep-sided Avon valley and there is little flat land available for large-scale development. Furthermore, as well as having a protected historic core, bath is surrounded by green belt, which restricts urban sprawl, in this case towards nearby Bristol and surrounding towns. To the east, much of the countryside falls in the Cotswolds area of outstanding natural beauty, limiting development to village infill. As a consequence, Bath has a real shortage of affordable housing, even lower than the nationally low figure for the south
TS 208 Operational Issues for Hospitality SEMESTER 1 2008 ASSIGNMENT 1 SYSTEMS THEORY WILLIAM (BILLY) JOHNS S11032027 The objective of this essay is to explore whether the aspects and principles of systems theory are applicable in the management of a hotel business, and to confirm if systems theory is relevant, secondly to identify and discuss how systems theory can be integrated into the processes of managing a business, and to discuss how a hotel operation can benefit from the applications of systems principles. In order to answer this, firstly we need to determine what systems, systems theory and systems thinking is and if exists in the tourism and hospitality industry. The systems theory is basically the combination of technology, processes and human resources that makes it possible to deliver goods and services to customers. Simply put, the systems theory consists of inputs, a transformation process and outputs. In order to gain the desired output, the inputs and the processes must be of quality and have some standard requirements. There are two main types of systems; hard and soft systems. (Pizam, 2005) Hard systems are mainly technology, machinery, or tools required to perform a task or produce a good or service, which is part of the systems process where outcomes are precise, measured and controlled. Examples of hard systems would be; management information
Asses the extent to which the Root Causes of famine lie in physical geography.
Asses the extent to which the Root Causes of famine lie in physical geography. In this report I intend to review various cases of famine to discover whether the fundamental causation of famine can be found in physical and human geography. I shall look at drought, and its effects and why it occurs. I will evaluate desertification and the problem that it causes Famine leading to malnutrition claims more lives than any other, it leads to widespread death in a large area, it is arguably the cause of most human suffering. Famines differ from common hunger because they occur infrequently and affect a limited number of people, who die of starvation. One definition is "The regional failure of food production or distribution systems, leading to sharply increased mortality due to starvation and associated disease"(Cox 1981, 5). It is estimated that 800 million people are undernourished (lacking 100 - 400 kilocalories per day) and that a child dies of hunger every five seconds, killing five million children a year according to a United Nations report made in June, 2004. The conclusion from the most recent conference in Rome was that richer countries should do more and increase annual expenditure by 24 billion dollars. FAO director Jacques Diouf points out that if all the food produced 'were to be divided equally among its inhabitants, every man, woman and child would consume 2,760
Development may denote different things to different people, and development may vary in the context which it is being used.
Development may denote different things to different people, and development may vary in the context which it is being used. Therefore, there is the need to agree on the definition of development and the criteria which can be used to evaluate whether a country is developing or not. This essay will look at the various meanings of development and also touch on one of the three main senses which are used to assess development. The various criteria which are being used to measure development will be explained and examined, with reasons for and against on how adequate the criteria are to measure the extent to which development has occurred. Development in a simple term means growth plus change. Development may be regarded as a goal towards which countries strive, and also a process which involves casual relationships. During the 19the century, development was seen as the experience of countries which were already industrialised for example Britain, United States, Japan, and France. Economists stressed the importance of savings and accumulation of capital for economic growth. Development according to Smillie (1995) 'is a product of many things: good education, effective health and welfare services, good and open government, environmental sustainability, high rates of savings and investment, a dynamic private sector, a vibrant civil society and a healthy trading regime are
This essaywill discuss orthodox models of development and theRadical Dependency Theory. It will outline the main critiques of theModernisation and Radical Dependency Theories, together with the responses tosuch criticisms.
This essay will discuss orthodox models of development and the Radical Dependency Theory. It will outline the main critiques of the Modernisation and Radical Dependency Theories, together with the responses to such criticisms. Orthodox models of development have long equated economic growth with 'development'. The Gross National Product of a country was continually used to equate their economical stance to their level of 'development'. Between the two World wars, models began to emerge which favoured this equation, more widely known as the 'Modernisation Theory'. Rostow (1960, 1978) proposed five linear stages of economic growth, the first stage being 'underdevelopment' with a progression through to 'development'. This model implied that societies moved 'forward' or progressed from 'traditional' to 'modern' and was the basis of the 'Modernisation theory'. This approach to human progress has been critiqued consistently throughout its history, with the main criticisms being that the approach is ethnocentric, one-dimensional and centralised. Ethnocentrism is a form of prejudice or stereo-typing that assumes the superiority of one's own culture or ethnic group. Modernisation as interpreted by Rostow was created under 'Western' ideas of material progress with industrialisation and urbanisation being integral components of 'modern' economic activities (Lewis, 1955).
Lewis and Clark
In February 1803 at the urging of then President Thomas Jefferson, Congress approved spending $2,500 for a small U.S. Army expedition, final cost of the voyage was $38,727. Their assignment was to ascend the Missouri River to its source, cross the continental divide, and follow the Columbia River to its mouth at the Pacific Ocean. Jefferson chose 28-year-old Meriwether Lewis as leader for the group he called the Corps of Discovery. Lewis selected a former army comrade, 32-year-old William Clark to be his co-leader. The expedition began May 14, 1804, as the group left Camp Wood River, Illinois. The expedition returned to St. Louis on September 23, 1806. Jefferson knew that this expedition would test the limits of the human body; he needed to find a few good men that would be physically able to complete this journey and document their findings. Having thoughts in mind Jefferson's first choice was Meriwether Lewis, an intelligent and literate man who possessed skills as a frontiersman. With Lewis being the first choice he now needed a partner for this elaborate task, soliciting the help from William Clark. Clark had abilities of a draftsman and frontiersman that were superior to Lewis. With this new found partnership both Lewis and Clark needed to find a capable and willing group of men to accompany the Corps of Discovery on their two year journey to the great ocean.
Personal development essay
Personal Development Time management can be defined as the management of time that enables someone to make the most out of it. Time management is a very important factor that helps a student achieve success as an independent learner (Macleod-Brudenell et al, 2004). As a student I am responsible for organizing most of my study time. When there are other commitments such as friends, family and work, this can be challenging. To enable myself to manage my time well, it is important to be aware of my own time management and how long it takes to finish each task. It is also essential to remember that a great deal of study can take longer than expected. As a student I need to allow time for unforeseen circumstances. Everybody needs to relax and have some leisure time, being a student is no exception and I need to schedule time for this (Cottrell, 2008). Since becoming a student I have improved my time management skills. The main reason for this is that if I didn't then I would not be able to succeed in my studies and everyday life. I have not only had to keep to a schedule for my time at college but also for my work placement, childcare arrangements, study time, and my volunteer youth work. I have also managed to give myself enough time to relax and wind down. In the past I have only had to manage my employment and childcare. I have learnt to prioritize certain tasks and make good
A dedicated Cruise Terminal as part of the Port & Airport Developmentin Hong Kong.
Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management University of Hong Kong To: Dr. H T Dimitriou From: Mason Hung Chung Hing Case Studies in Urban Planning (Course No. 83852) Term Paper A dedicated Cruise Terminal as part of the Port & Airport Development in Hong Kong A dedicated Cruise Terminal as part of the Port & Airport Development in Hong Kong Contents . Purpose 2. Background 3. Importance of Tourism to Hong Kong 4. Market Situation for Cruise Industry 5. Why does Hong Kong need a dedicated Cruise Terminal ? 6. Technical Requirements of a Dedicated Cruise Terminal 7. Possible Locations 8. Financial Viability 9. Capacity 0. Conclusion A dedicated Cruise Terminal as part of the Port & Airport Development in Hong Kong . Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of a dedicated cruise terminal to Hong Kong, in terms of tourism development, as part of the port and airport development and Hong Kong as an international city. The infrastructure requirements associated with developing Hong Kong as a major cruise hub, its viability and capability are also examined. 2. Background Throughout the world, the high-yield cruise industry is booming. But Hong Kong can only become a major hub for regional cruises when an additional, purpose-built, world-class terminal opens for business in the harbour. 3. Importance of Tourism to Hong
Child Development Journal
Observation 1 Child A Setting In the classroom Age of child and year group 8 years old, year 4 Child A was in his form group and the lesson was Home Economics. All the children in the class were planning to make a salad. They were shown a list of food items on the board and had to choose at least 1 from each of the 3 columns. The first column consisted of pasta and rice, the second of tuna, bacon and cheese, and the third of sweet corn, carrots, cucumber and lettuce. The children were then asked to write their choices in their books and then draw pictures of them. Child A started drawing pictures. A female teaching assistant asked child A what he was doing. He said "I'm drawing my salad". She told him he needed to write the names of the food first and then draw them. He did not respond. She then asked him what the drawings were. He said "A strawberry, a banana, some grapes and an apple". She told him he needed to choose some of the food that was listed on the board. He said "But this is what I'm putting in my salad". She rubbed out his drawings and asked him what food he was going to choose. He said "A strawberry, a banana, some grapes and an apple". He started picking pencils out of a pot. She told him he needed to choose some food from the board; he started drawing his fruit again and repeated what the fruit was. She rubbed out the drawings again and told him if