- Join over 1.2 million students every month
- Accelerate your learning by 29%
- Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
University Degree: UK Government & Parliamentary Studies
Meet our team of inspirational teachers
This empire arose around the 3rd Century BC and flourished for more than a thousand years. * Ghana was an important center of trade. Its wealth was great that Arabs called it the land of gold and this is still used today * Modern Ghana is located in West Africa bordering the Gulf of Guinea between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo * Has a tropical climate that is warm and relatively dry along the Southeast cost, hot and humid in the Southwest and hot and dry in the north. * Natural resources are gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, rubber and hydropower.
- Word count: 2443
"Bolivar believed that monarchic regimes would be the most appropriate form of government for the emancipated Spanish American nations". Discuss.
In the 'Carta de Jamaica' he said that he '[did] not favour the federal system. It [was] overperfect'. He also discarded the concept of a monarchy with part aristocracy and part democracy. He extolled the virtues of the monarchy in England but believed that if the same governmental system was imposed on Spanish America that the country would face the threat of falling into 'demagogic anarchy or monocratic tyranny'. Bolivar anticipated and calculated the political product of these newly emancipated colonies. He supposed that the Mexicans intended to establish a representative republic where the executive had enormous powers.
- Word count: 996
(Office of the Deputy Prime Minister e-publication) E-government focuses on the citizen. Approximately 40 percent of e-government endeavours are designed to serve the public. Service to students, information on food safety, virtual libraries, digital maps and the ability to pay taxes and fees online are some of the ways e-government is being utilised. E-government provides information with more than half (57 percent) doing just that. Over 85 percent of implemented e-government services are done through the Web. Government has become more sophisticated.
- Word count: 4954
However the long term implications highlighted what little forethought had been exercised and the disproportionate population today places a far more negative impact upon the economy. Babies born in the booms between 1948-50 and 1955-62 have all reached fifty with some men and women contemplating retirement and with figures showing that by 2031 twenty seven million people (nearly half the UK population) will be over 50. The older generations hold the potential to play a large political and social role (politics.org 2004).
- Word count: 3562
Mongolia is highland country, with an average altitude of 1,585 metres above sea level (Rupen 1978: 15). Following independence from China in the 1920s, Mongolia became the second country after Russia to adopt communism in 1924. Mongolia remained closely tied to the Soviet Union until the end of the 1980s. It received support from the Soviet Union economically and with its military, and generally followed Soviet guidance politically and culturally. Mongolia now practices a democratic government with multiple parties. It is currently attempting to rebuild national culture which it lost during the Soviet communist establishment.
- Word count: 3253
During the cold war, the Italian Communist Party (PCI) had been the strongest of its kind outside of Russia1 and electoral support had continued to grow up until the mid 1970s. It was from this point the electoral decline began and continued right to the elections in the mid 1980s it was at this point that support for the party was no larger than it had been as a protest vote in the 1950s. The French Communist party was experiencing a decline in voters at a time that coincided with its Italian political brother.
- Word count: 3051
Unemployment is at a 30 year low but comparisons need to be made here to the governments that preceded New Labour. Unemployment has been as high as 10% under new labour at the end of the 90s and we are a world away from that now, but this is something that has not just been down to the Labour party. The rate began to fall rapidly from 1993 when the economy began to recover from recession and actually halved by the time New Labour came to power in 1997.
- Word count: 2767
The consensus in British politics between 1945 and 1979 reflected confusion and compromise rather than a purposeful sense of direction
In terms of an alliance with the US, all governments, with the exception of Heath followed pro-American 'Atlanticism'. Britain aided the US in its fight against communism, played a leading role in forming NATO (1949), sent help to Korea (1950-53) and bought weapons from the US (post Nassau 1962). Whilst this alignment may at first appear to be evidence of clear policy direction, in truth Britain became increasingly dependant on the US (both in terms of military and financial support) and as a result dictated by US opinion. For instant Britain's withdrawal from the Suez crisis (1956 - where Eisenhower threatened Britain with devaluation)
- Word count: 1899
It is possible to identify three roles and responsibilities that a police authority has. First it is charged with maintaining an adequate and efficient police force, second it can be seen as a watchdog
The tripartite system will be discussed with focus lying on the community accountability. "The art of achieving accountability...is to enlist the support of the police in disciplinary activities...For processes of external regulation...to be more than highly publicised morality play, the police must become convinced that they will be trusted to bear...the active responsibility for ensuring correct performance" (Bayley, 1983, pp. 158) It has been argued that effective regulation of police powers and accountability requires that the rules of criminal procedure should be enforceable in the sense that they are broadly acceptable to and respected by the police.
- Word count: 2081
Analyze the relationship between the Democratic Party (D.P.) and the Kabaka Yekka (K.Y) - 'King Alone' movement.
This personal change exemplified the transformation of the party from being Catholic oriented as a priority, to focusing more on achieving democracy in Buganda. During 1960 a popular neo-traditionalist organization calling Mwoyo gwa Gwanga (' Spirit of the people') had appeared, but by 1961 it had been overtaken by a new political movement in Buganda called Kabaka Yekka ('The Kabaka Only), which by November 1961 had become the main vehicle for political activity of the great bulk of Buganda's neo-traditionalists.
- Word count: 3135
The Beveridge Report was merely a re-working of old ideas. How far do you agree with this view considering the changing treatment of the poor 1834-1948?
for those in the greatest poverty and the fact that to change their predicament was quite beyond most poor people's personal capabilities. In the period between 1906 and 1911 an unprecedented range of legislation was passed focussing particularly upon employment and child welfare which together represented the first assault by a British government upon the range of needs of the working population. The period between the wars saw further legislation to improve conditions for the least well-off, especially with the introduction of Municipal Housing following the Addison Act of 1919.
- Word count: 1943
It was no longer a relatively ineffective and insecurely based force - the votes gained meant that Labour now held the position of a vigorous and determined opposition. The Labour Party was also able to gradually replace the Liberals as a major party through to their own changing measures as an institution. There was the gradual disassociation of organised labour, if not from the war, then at least from the governmental direction of the war, as reflected in the growing separation from their party of the Labour members of government.
- Word count: 1112
Motions were passed by all three provinces legislatures in favour of the union. This Maritime Union however never had a chance to materialize. Fear of American Annexation Fear of American takeover during the American Civil war pushed the colonies towards unification. Historian F.H. Underhill has suggested that "somewhere on Parliament Hill in Ottawa...there should be erected a monument to this American ogre who has so often performed the function of saving us from drift and indecision."3 The fear of an annexation from the Americans made many fearful.
- Word count: 3480
In conclusion the most significant changes to the price of housing in the 1980's were the Right to Buy, Tax Relief and the Housing Benefit Scheme
During the decades following the First World War the recession meant that buying houses was made less attractive. There was a growth in council housing and affordable houses were built for the working class, such as homes for the miners provided by the industry. At the same time private renting decreased as the affluent began to buy. There was also a great variation in the supply and demand of housing. (The Transformation of British Politics 1860-1995 - Brian Harrison - Oxford University press 1996) There was a surplus of expensive housing in the countryside and a shortage of affordable housing in inner cities, (Housing Policy and Practice 5th Edition 1999 Macmillan Press Ltd, London).
- Word count: 1406
in order to press issues that will most effect the way the public lives their lives. The analytical standpoint that this paper takes explains and observes how public interest groups are overwhelmingly relevant to the media as well as to the lives of everyday citizens. III. Research Questions and Research Method: When looking at public interest group, one tends to wonder about the aspects of what participating in an interest group entails, and how an interest group goes about setting and making goals. There are some major questions that an outsider may yearn to ask when looking into the subjects of interest groups.
- Word count: 2077
Should the House of Lords be fully elected? How would election of the House of Lords affect its relationship with the House of Commons? The UK legislature is bicameral, that is, comprising of two chambers: the House of Commons
With the House of Lords Act in 1999, it swept away the power of most hereditary peers to vote. This was supposed to have been the first step in a larger program of reform, but the next steps proved harder to take than the Government expected. An unelected House of Lords in our present modern day society is an anachronism, as we compare it with other Western democracies, only to realise how outdated this institution has become. The Lords perform an important function in UK political system, but the people have no voice in choosing who should sit in it, due to the continued existence of the hereditary principle, which at present still apply to some members.
- Word count: 1965
In particular, Burch and Holliday attribute this to Blair's leadership, stating that it acted in two ways, firstly, organising the various elements into priorities, both to minimise 'any detrimental electoral consequences and to generate a clear strategy and timetable for implementation." On the other hand, it placed New Labour's constitutional programme in a wider context of political modernisation, inspired by, "democracy, decentralisation, accountability, community and co-operation"2. These criteria mentioned by Burch and Holliday are a rough summary of the areas of debate within the constitution, which needed to be addressed in light of the political developments over time.
- Word count: 2405
Federalism allows this dual identity, and the constitutional power enshrined to the States ensures that central government is deliberately restricted, and certain powers are preserved to for the States. The primary concern for the Founding Fathers was merely to find a way to implement democracy and the system of Federalism enabled this in a "mode of political organization that unites separate policies within an overarching political system"1. The reasons that Federalism was chosen as this form of democratic government is are important to consider, the ideals (doesn't make sense)
- Word count: 2755
It was not socialism but the continuation of a wartime consensus on the need for reform. Discuss this assessment of the 1945-51 Labour Governments.
Contrary to this was a commitment to achieve full employment and introduce national insurance to fund the proposed system. He also urged the need for a mixed economy consisting of both private and state run systems which included; the bank of England (1946); Coal mines (1947) and Electricity, Gas and Railways (1948). By taking these three pillars of the Atlee governments 1945-51, an assessment can be made which would indicate that there was a coherent continuation of a wartime consensus and that socialism as the 1945 Labour manifesto 'Let us face the future' said "The Labour Party is a Socialist Party, and proud of it"ii instead of adopted a continuity of wartime policy and consensus.
- Word count: 3466
These suggest that Rupert's cavalry went chasing after loot and plunder rather than regrouping and fighting. "As it seemed his troops were undisciplined and thought more of plunder than of king"- I Roots. This was a vital strategic mistake as regrouped I Roots argues that the Royalists could have defeated the Parliamentarians which would have laid the road to London open as Essex would have been defeated, this was the Kings best chance of a successful outcome to the War.
- Word count: 2290
Cabinet-dominated government occurs when the executive branch has a lot of power over the happenings in government. This usually occurs when the Prime Minister and his/her party has a large majority, when there is a "knowledge" gap in the House of Commons or it depends on the availability to the prime minister of non-bureaucratic advice.
- Word count: 521
The benchmark defining the necessary conditions for a minister's resignation will also be looked at. Ministers resign for three reasons. First, they are to blame for their errors. Second, they mislead Parliament. Third, they lose the support of their Prime Minister. The David Blunkett affair, which saw Blunkett investigated for abusing his ministerial position, is testament to Tony Blair being the ultimate decision maker in the process of a minister's resignation. Similarly, The Scott Inquiry was conducted on behalf of the Prime Minister instead of for Parliament.3 Instead of ministerial accountability to Parliament, accountability to the Prime Minister is played out time and time again.
- Word count: 2826
Explain how the concept of a social contract is fundamental to John Locke's political philosophy and clarify his view of the rights of the individual
It is not however a state without morality (Locke, 1988). Each and every individual in this state of nature is held equal to one another, and as such are equally bound by the Locke's Law of Nature (Locke, 1988). This law of nature is the basis of all morality in the state of nature. It comes from God, and commands that we not harm others with regards to their... "...life, health, liberty, or possessions" (Locke, 1988, 2nd Treatise, par. 6)
- Word count: 2253
To what extent can it be said that the Liberal Government of 1906-1911 laid the basis for the British welfare state?
In early 19th century Britain, as for centuries before, poverty was regarded as natural or inevitable. It was assumed that the great majority of people would be born poor and would remain poor, with many becoming destitute. The dominating classical liberal philosophy of the period demanded that individuals should be allowed to pursue their own self-interest free from government intervention [laissez-faire] in the private market. Poor individuals who demonstrated exceptional ability could independently progress but it was generally accepted that, apart from charity and almsgiving, little or nothing could, or should, be done to relieve mass poverty.
- Word count: 2148
Many of the New Dealers believed the state should implement fascist concepts into their domestic policies. As John T. Flynn wrote, "The New Dealers...began to flirt with the alluring pastime of reconstructing the capitalist system...and in the process of this new career they began to fashion doctrines that turned out to be the principles of fascism." American Ambassadors to Italy reported on their admiration of Mussolini's unique and original government that organised the state to deal with post-Great War problems.
- Word count: 2799