"Conventional wisdom holds that governments that deliver economic prosperity tend to secure re-election whereas those associated with economic failure tend to lose office." Discussed in respect to the 2001 general election.
"Conventional wisdom holds that governments that deliver economic prosperity tend to secure re-election whereas those associated with economic failure tend to lose office." (Sanders and Brynin). Given that the 1997 General Election was held after a prolonged period of economic recovery in Britain, how can one explain the outcome? What does it tell us about the value of perspectives that link economic prosperity or failure with election outcomes? Briefly consider your findings in the light of the 2001 general election. (You will be given credit for discussing the methodological problems that arise in this type of analysis.) "It's the economy stupid" is the famous response (ever since Bill Clinton coined it in his 1992 election campaign) to people who ask what matters in an election. It is certainly true to say that there is a lot of evidence from electoral research that voters' choices are conditioned heavily by economic conditions and by their view of the ability of competing parties to manage those conditions. However, as this essay will show it is people's perception of the economy and how the parties can manage it, rather than the actual economic prosperity of the country, that affects how people vote. It can also be argued how far other factors affect voting choice, especially in the post 1997 election period. Ever since the explanatory power of social class
"In the 5th Republic, parliament has become powerless." Discuss. The Birth of the 5th Republic was a typically French affair with a radical complete overhaul of the political system. This change was created by General Charles de Gaulle. The French Parliament is set out in article 24 of the 5th Republic constitution of the 4th October 1958 and is made up primarily of the National Assembly which is directly elected and consist of 577 deputies who are elected for 5 year terms, although this can be shortened by the president who has the power to dissolve Parliament under Article 12 of the constitution. The senate is elected indirectly and has 9 year terms (National Assembly, 2003). The National Assembly was formed during the French revolution. In 1814 the monarchy was restored with an extension of parliamentary power they then created the 'republican Republic' 1877 (Knapp, Wright, 2001 p.134) From 1877 to 1914 the National Assembly was extremely strong and reduced the government to a role as a 'mere committee who's main task was to implement parliaments decisions' (Knapp, Wright, 2001 p.134). From 1918 the parliament went into progressive decline due to the impact of foreign and colonial wars, the military occupation, the increasingly complicated legislation and the onset of more organised pressure groups (taken from Knapp, Wright, 2001 p.134). These factors meant that the
"Labour's defeats provoked the party to modernise itself, by changing in order to embrace many of the changes that had been undertaken by the Thatcher and Major governments (R. Heffernan)." Discuss.
"Labour's defeats provoked the party to modernise itself, by changing in order to embrace many of the changes that had been undertaken by the Thatcher and Major governments (R. Heffernan)." Discuss. Following defeat in the 1979 General Election, the Labour Party was demoralised and in complete disarray under the leadership of Michael Foot. Many believed that the party may never recover and that it was a spent force. The party was nowhere near being considered a credible alternative to Thatcher's Conservative Government. Few trusted the Labour party and its programme was broadly incoherent, irrelevant and unpopular. The party was plagued by bitter in-fighting, which eventually caused the formation of the SDP in 1981, and it had been seriously wounded by its economic failings in government, which included the notorious 'Winter of Discontent.' Britain was also changing in a way that was robbing 'Old' Labour of its core support. 'Old' Labour did not appeal to a society with aspirations where individualism dominated and class consciousness was being eroded (Fielding, 2003, 86). What is more, Thatcher's Government did its best to compound these trends and became the 'natural party of government.' It became increasingly clear to many people inside the Labour Party that in order to survive, let alone ever form a government, the party would have to modernise and accommodate
Tobacco & Drug Problems in Canadian Society Tobacco is a drug, and its addictive qualities and harmful effects have been well documented. Smoking is now widely acknowledged as the greatest single preventable cause of disease, disability and death in our society and is estimated to result in 3 5,000 premature deaths a year. Despite increased awareness of the risks of lung cancer, a substantial portion of young people ignore the hazards and begin smoking in their early teens. Teens who smoke are three times more likely than nonsmokers to use alcohol, eight times more likely to use marijuana, and 22 times more likely to use cocaine. Smoking is associated with a host of other risky behaviors, such as fighting and engaging in unprotected sex. A recent study indicates that 34% of all Canadians smoke this translates into nearly 8 million smokers. The most import thing that could decrease the use of tobacco especially in teens is to change some of the tobacco and drug policies of the government and to increase public awareness of all the risks of smoking such as the lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, eniphyserna and other types of cancer and awareness of the dangers of smoking during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills must also be increased. And the most important is the awareness and enforcement of the federal, provincial and municipal tobacco laws because they are
"The Budget is Merely the Culmination of a Design Deliberately Adopted and Steadily Pursued" - Discuss.
"The Budget is Merely the Culmination of a Design Deliberately Adopted and Steadily Pursued" This quote is referring to the constitutional conflict between the democratically elected party, the Liberals, and the House of Lords. The conflict arose due to the fact that the un elected party, the conservatives were able to block legislation from passing through the House of Lords, putting a strain on the British democratic constitution. The quote is basically implying that the people's Budget of 1909 was a plan or strategy made by the Liberals to reduce the power of the House of Lords. It was felt by some that the budget was not introduced to help the British population, but its ulterior motive was to provoke the House of Lords into rejecting. However, the Liberals insisted differently, saying that it was merely for social reform. This argument can be split into two halves. Firstly the idea that the budget was a deliberate provocation of the House of Lords, which is in agreement with the Quote. One of the Conservative's main arguments was that the Liberals had no electoral mandate to pass this Act. They had not legal or moral power given to them to propose and pass the legislation, as they had never mentioned the People's Budget during the election campaign. The supporters were voting for their proposals concerning Taff Vale and Chinese Slavery etc. The Lords had
"A Prime Minister is only as powerful as his Cabinet allows Him to be" Members of the cabinet are the supreme decision-making authority for the government, and are the sole advisers to the Crown. Cabinet ministers are members of parliament and are made up from the same political party as the one that is in government i.e. all current ministers are members of the Labour Party. They have both executive and legislative responsibilities. Members of the cabinet answer to the Prime Minister who may remove or reshuffle any of them as he wishes. The cabinet is responsible to Parliament for its policies and actions. According to the cabinet offices own website; "The Cabinet Office's central role is to support the Prime Minister in ensuring delivery of the Government's strategy, helping to achieve positive change, particularly in the priority areas of education, health, transport and crime and asylum.1" "The Cabinet reconciles Ministers' individual responsibilities with their collective responsibility. It is the ultimate arbiter of all Government policy." The number of cabinet members varies but there are usually 20-25 members selected from 100 government members with a tendency for the number to increase in normal times with the growth of governmental functions and to decrease in national emergencies when the executive power is concentrated in fewer hands. A Cabinet is selected by
"Assess the Political Influence of the Media in Britain" The political influence of the media has long been a topic for debate for politicians and academics across the spectrum, however whether it can change the views of the mass public is another question entirely. In order to assess the question, one must first look at the history of the media, its development and function, before moving onto looking at the role it plays in politics and the relationships and mutual dependence of the media and politicians. It is also important to look at some of the explanations that have been put forward to explain the media's role in voting behaviour. The term 'media' conjures up an array of different images in ones mind. As far back as the early seventeenth century there has been a 'media industry' in Britain, albeit a far cry from the multi functional, multi million pound industry that it boasts today. Prior to the invention of what is now termed "mass media", communication was predominantly verbal between political groups or the church. The first of the main mediums of today was the newspaper. The newspaper finally emerged as a major and continuous feature of national, political and cultural life when pre-publication censorship lapsed in England and Wales (Harris, B. 1996, p6.). These papers were however, free to offer opinions and could be openly biased. During the period of
"Because nationalism rests on no more than an emotive appeal to 'tribal' loyalties, in a pluralistic society it is always a recipe for conflict". Discuss.
"Because nationalism rests on no more than an emotive appeal to 'tribal' loyalties, in a pluralistic society it is always a recipe for conflict". Discuss. Nationalism is key and central in the study of world politics. Indeed, within the political spectrum, nationalism is perhaps the strongest emotion in the human psyche. Even the likes of religion, class, individual or group interest are in general, overshadowed by nationalism in today's politics.1 The 20th century highlighted the nationalism issue with the break up of many states such as the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia who are important in light that there was a great deal of bloodshed in the process. Furthermore, the ongoing conflict in Northern Ireland and the nationalist activities in Spain, would suggest that nationalism undoubtedly leads to conflict and perhaps even war. However, not all believe that nationalist passions are negative. Ernest Gellner believes that nationalism was critical in the founding of a modern industrial society.2 Nationalism can be seen to encourage creative thought in society and help economies flourish as is the case with the Republic of Ireland which gained independence through nationalist movement. This is why the discussion over whether nationalism is a recipe for conflict is necessary. In tackling the issue of nationalism, it is wise to first define the term. This in itself can be difficult
"Bolivar believed that monarchic regimes would be the most appropriate form of government for the emancipated Spanish American nations". Discuss.
"Bolivar believed that monarchic regimes would be the most appropriate form of government for the emancipated Spanish American nations". Discuss. Simon Bolivar, known as 'El Liberator' was born in 1783 and in his adult years proceeded to try to revolutionize the political allegiance that South America had to Spain. While Bolivar's' pursuit of political sovereignty from Spain seemed well thought out, the reality of it was unattainable. Spanish Americans were still viewed by the Spanish government as being simply an expansion of Spain. The irony was that while Bolivar wanted independence from Spain, he wanted to unite the Spanish American colonies as one country. Therefore Bolivar's belief in a united system collided. Bolivar's main belief, however, was that monarchic regimes were not the best solution Spanish America. He cited this in the 'Angostura Speech' and the 'Carta de Jamaica'. In the 'Carta de Jamaica' he said that he '[did] not favour the federal system. It [was] overperfect'. He also discarded the concept of a monarchy with part aristocracy and part democracy. He extolled the virtues of the monarchy in England but believed that if the same governmental system was imposed on Spanish America that the country would face the threat of falling into 'demagogic anarchy or monocratic tyranny'. Bolivar anticipated and calculated the political product of these newly
"Britain is a soft touch for asylum seekers." Discuss. Thousands of asylum seekers each year arrive in Britain with the hope of a better life. They choose the United Kingdom for many different reasons, some because they speak the language, because they have friends or relatives there, the big majority probably because it is a big ethnically diverse nation in which it is easy to blend in and meanwhile it is also easy to disappear. In 2000, the UK received the largest number of asylum applications of any EU country, with 97,860 asylum applications; in 1999 UK recognised asylum to 72% of the applications, with 102,870 cases which still pending. Today in Britain asylum-seekers receive a benefit of £ 36.54 a week in voucher and cash. In addition they can apply for the right to work after six months they arrive. Once they find an employment they lose their benefits. They have access to free health service and if they prove that they cannot afford an accommodation they are provided shelter for free by the State. Statistics prove that other EU countries are much more strict when it comes to immigrations matters. France for instance; number of asylum applications in 2000 was 38,590, with only 19.3% recognized and with none pending application. Just comparing the above-mentioned statistic it seems that we have to agree with 2France's statement "that it is the UK's generous