The world trading organization.

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The world trading organization (WTO) being working since 1947. The general agreement under tariffs and trade (GAUTT), started the activity from January, 1, 1995. WTO is called to adjust trading - political attitudes(relations) of participants of the Organization on the basis of package of the Uruguayan round of multilateral trading negotiations (1986-1994). These documents are legal basis of modern international trade.

The agreement on establishment of WTO provides creation of a permanent forum of countries - members for settlement of the problems influencing their multilateral trade relations, and the control of realization of agreements and arrangements of the Uruguayan round. WTO functions in many respects the same as and GAUTT, but thus carries out the control of wider spectrum of trading agreements (including trade in services and questions of trading aspects of rights of the intellectual property) and has much more powers in connection with perfection of procedures of acceptance of decisions and their performance by members of the organization. An integral part of WTO is the unique mechanism of the sanction of trading disputes.

Since 1947 discussion of global problems of liberalization and prospects of development of world trade passes within the framework of multilateral trading negotiations (MTN) under aegis GAUTT. By 2002 it is carried out(spent) 8 roundes MTN, including Uruguayan, and the ninth already began. The main problem(task) of this influential international economic organization is liberalization of world trade.

Basic principles and rules GAUTT/WTO are: trade without discrimination, i.e. mutual granting of most favoured nation treatment in trade and mutual granting of a national treatment to the goods and services of a foreign origin; regulation of trade by mainly tariff methods; refusal of use of quantitative and other restrictions; the sanction of trading disputes by consultations and negotiations etc.

The major functions of WTO are: the control of performance of agreements and arrangements of a package of documents of the Uruguayan round; realization of multilateral trading negotiations and consultations between the interested countries - members; the sanction of trading disputes; monitoring of a national commercial policy of countries - members; technical assistance to the developing states on the questions concerning the competence of WTO; cooperation with the international specialized organizations.

The general(common) advantages from membership in WTO can be summarized as follows:

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- more favorable conditions of access on the world markets of the goods and services on the basis of predictability and stability of development of trade relations with countries - members of WTO, switching their external economic policy(politics);

- Access to the mechanism of WTO under the resolution of disputes providing protection of national interests if they are restrained by partners, and thus elimination of discrimination;

- An opportunity of realization of the current and strategic trade and economic interests by effective participation in MTN at development(manufacture) of new rules of international trade.

All countries - members of WTO accept ...

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