"Utopia is no place". How does the Utopian and dystopian fiction you have studied present the possibility of perfection.
"Utopia is no place". How does the Utopian and dystopian fiction you have studied present the possibility of perfection. "It is the dream of a just society, which seems to haunt the human imagination ineradicably and in all ages"1. But "absolute purity, absolute justice, absolute logic and perfection are beyond human achievement"2. Composers such as More, Orwell, Huxley and Atwood use different avenues and techniques to explore this idea of perfection and its feasibility on earth with the human race. Utopian and dystopian fiction comprises a broad selection of texts; but in the narrowest definition any text in which the composer proposes an ideal or nightmarish world or society. The literary cannons of Utopian and Dystopian fiction include: Plato's Republic, Thomas More and his Utopia - responsible for both the generic name and genre creation; Aldous Huxley's Brave New World; George Orwell's 1984 and Animal Farm; And Marget Atwoods's Hand Maid's Tale. Within each text composers use different presentations of the 'ideal' society to highlight the achievability and desirability of perfection. Utopia is a story, to be discovered only by trespassing onto an unknown voyage of exploration by Raphael Hythloday, More's fictional protagonist. Utopia is a "prototypical sociological and anthropological study"3 into humanity. In book II, More 'records' Raphael's account of
Critical Appriciation of the Two Minuets Hate in 1984
Write a critical appreciation of pages 16-18 "in its second... uttering a prayer". How does the two minutes hate contribute to your understanding of the nightmare world in which Winston lives? The two minutes hate is almost a celebration of a cult, a sort of gathering of religious fanatics to honour their ruler, Big Brother. Orwell uses it to show the expressions of anarchy amongst the 'leaping and shouting' people and how this would be their only chance to express their human feelings in the nightmare society in which they are forced to live. Winston's dystopian world is displayed in Orwell's unsympathetic parody of the two minutes silence in commemoration of WWII and epitomises the 'frenzy' of emotions, the terror and violent culture that Winston has to tolerate. His elaborate view of religious or political fanatics scrutinises these kinds of obsessions and demonstrates how it can over-power a person's life. Control is one of the main components of the two minutes hate. The people are helpless, they are 'like that of a landed fish' in the robotic machine that is Big Brother. They cannot escape from 'the voice' that 'continued inexorably' and there is no escapism to be had in the 'frenzy' of voices yelling at the screen. This reflects a nightmare that is inescapable until we awake. Winston longs to awaken in a society capable of love, without suffering, but it seems he
thrpugh the character and actions of Napoleon Orwell paints a picture of brutal tyranny, discuss
Jennifer Hoult "Through the character and actions of Napoleon, Orwell paints a picture of brutal tyranny" Discuss Tyranny can be defined as an oppressive power and especially oppressive power exerted by government and where full power is with one ruler. Napoleon is first perceived as being helpful and thoughtful towards the other animals as it is he and Snowball who start to educate the other animals on the 'principles of Animalism'. It can also be seen that straight after the rebellion the pigs seem to be working for the benefit of the other animals and did not see their selves as more important as they wrote the seven commandments. These were written as an 'unalterable law' for everyone. We can also see Napoleon took charge from the beginning as he led the animals to the store-shed and gave 'a double ration of corn to everyone'. It was as though he was trying to gain respect from the start, as the animals will remember that he was the one who first fed them well. However, it is almost immediately after that, we see a sense of Napoleon's tyrannical actions when the milk disappeared. Napoleon tried to turn the other animals' attention away from the milk. The milk was never discussed with the other animals and this shows that Napoleon was not being fair and is already trying to exploit the other animals. It seems that he already has a hidden agenda which is fuelled by his
The purpose of dystopian literature is to dehumanize the individual To what extent do the novels Nineteen Eighty Four and the Road support or refute this view?
'The purpose of dystopian literature is to dehumanize the individual' To what extent do the novels Nineteen Eighty Four and the Road support or refute this view? The dystopian novels The Road and Nineteen Eighty Four demonstrate the push and pull between the utopian and dystopian societies in their narratives. Dystopian literature often seems to be a deterrent to the reader the nightmarish lifestyles presented to us by each individual protagonist characters dehumanized due to the desolate and barren lifestyles presented in each text. However, despite this, the bleak settings seem to send messages of optimism, and to some extent hope, through the interactions of characters in each novel. In The Road the boy and the father are seen to be two people left who are not dehumanized by the new apocalyptic society. They do not conform to cannibalism, rape or murder; however their humanity is tested through the desolate landscapes and their lack of human contact and refusal to help those they do meet in this new society. Although the father only has the boy his humanity is clear as they are "each other worlds entire" showing he only lives for his son. We can also see the boy knows that without his father he would not be able to defend for himself and would be lonely. When the father asks him "what would you do if I died" the son replies "if you died I would want to die too/....so
stereotyped women in 1984
Orwell only succeeds in creating stereotyped representations of women in his novel '1984'. Discuss. In George Orwell's '1984' he patronises the women he creates as we see an insight into the weaker sex who are often degraded with humiliating names and vulnerability. Orwell stereotypes the female characters, which reflects his somewhat limited view of women and their important role ion society. He creates a problem in the way that masculinity and femininity lose all value in the totalitarian state. As the misogynist Orwell is, it is not surprising he has portrayed women in such silent, sad and solitary ways. The main character, Julia is revealed as weak, and incapable of helping her self up as 'she held out a free hand' toward Winston expecting him to help her up. This is the first time we really meet Julia and already she is exposed to the critical eye of the reader as in need of a man to perform in society. She is very much displayed as a sexual object in the novel as she works in minitrue and creates cheap pornography for a living. This reflects her insignificant role in the rat race of the world, as a toy amongst men. She has had 'many affairs' and even Winston seems infatuated by her 'naked, youthful body'. In a world where sex is banished only for the purpose of procreation, Orwell used her stereotypical 'nimble' figure to make sex is at the height of the agenda. In
During the reign of Napoleon the animal's lives became increasingly hard, and began to resemble their lives with Mr. Jones. During the first barn meeting Old Major spoke of an ideal world where animals ran their own farm in peace and harmony with one another. One of the most important quotes said by old major was him describing the lives of the animals. "Our lives are miserable, laborious, and short". He said that once the animals had served their purpose they were killed. Later in the story Boxer the most loyal of all the animals on the farm was sent to the glue-factory when he became old and could no longer work. Napoleon became just like Mr. Jones. He was just interested in himself and what could get him more money and alcohol. With the help of squealer he was able to convince the other animals on the farm that Boxer was taken to an animal hospital, and unfortunately died. Many of the animals believed him because they could not think for themselves but some animals knew the truth that napoleon was only looking out for the pigs best interest and what would further him. During the reign of Napoleon the animal's lives became increasingly hard, and began to resemble their lives with Mr. Jones. During the first barn meeting Old Major spoke of an ideal world where animals ran their own farm in peace and harmony with one another. One of the most important quotes said
984 is a dystopian novel about the society of the future. Writing in 1948, he images Britain forty years in the future as a totalitarian dictatorship which combines elements of both Communism and Fascism in a powerful, omniscient police-state, based on terror. The story takes place in a totalitarian state called Oceania. The world has been divided up by Oceania and two other states, Eastasia and Eurasia. The post-war world is governed by power groups alternatively at war with one another. After the revolution, the establishment has been replaced by a dictatorship, whose leader is BB. In his features and look, BB clearly recalls Stalin, and the fact that his face is depicted everywhere is a denunciation of the cult of personality, typical in all dictatorships. Trying to control the thoughts of every citizen, the authorities rewrite history, changing events. The hero, Winston Smith, is an intellectual and rebels against this world and begins to dream of destroying the system. The description of London, capital of Oceania, in the first chapter of the book, is similar to wartime London. The environment recalls bomb-damaged London in 1948. The influence of WW2 is clearly evident; it is a nightmare that still haunts the population. Personal freedom is restricted because Oceania is in a permanent state of war and everyone is potentially a traitor. The only chance of survival is by
George Orwell - "Shooting an Elephant" (1936).
George Orwell - "Shooting an Elephant" (1936) Non Fiction "Shooting an Elephant", by George Orwell, is a highly effective piece of non-fiction. Although written about an event many years ago, in a society that no longer exists as it did then, the essay still holds relevance in the ideas it contains. It is how Orwell puts across his views on colonialism and human nature that I intend to investigate. The essay revolves around Orwell recounting an incident which he experienced as a policeman in colonial Burma, in the 1920's. Orwell was called to act when a tame elephant went 'must' and started ravaging a bazaar, killing one of the indigenous Indians. However, by the time he had located the elephant, the attack seemed to have passed, so there was no need to destroy it. Yet such was the pressure from the local populace, and Orwell's fear of being mocked, that he shot the elephant. When he first introduces himself to the reader, Orwell seems to be a fairly level-headed person, with his self- depreciating tone showing that he doesn't take himself too seriously in the 'great scheme' of things; drawing the reader to sympathise with him. This sympathy is extended further when the reader is made privy to the ambivalence of Orwell's feelings towards his position in Burma. In direct contrast to the majority of Westerners in the East at that time, Orwell was very conscious of the
Who Controls the past, controls the future - Who Controls the present controls the past - What might George Orwell have meant to say when he said this?
Question: Who Controls the past, controls the future. Who Controls the present controls the past. What might George Orwell have meant to say when he said this? George Orwell, a large figure of literature, was an anti-communism, and against totalitarian tendencies. Therefore, in 1949, he published a book, 1984, warning about the future. A prediction of the future? Fear is a characteristic built within the human being, which at the time was the future and in whose hands it would be? In this novel, George Orwell's vision of the world is deeply shocking, as domination of a certain 'Party', controls everyone and everything. They control what we (the public) see, hear, touch, smell, and even think about. History is a vital part of human existence and as illustrated well in the book, the past is 'nature alterable', and if done so, will be true 'from everlasting to everlasting'. The re-creation of history by these white males conveys the world, as they want it to be, in order to attain control over the public i.e. the World. By rewriting books, as they wanted them, and confiscating any unwanted material, they had full control of the past, therefore they were control of the current time (present), and hence the future! The motto of the Party is 'Those who control the past, control the future; Those who control the future control the past. By manipulating all forms of
Nineteen Eighty-Four: A grim prediction of the future.
Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Grim Prediction of the Future Nineteen Eighty-Four was written between the years of 1945 and 1948. Orwell got the title from switching the last two numbers of the publication date. In Orwell's criticism of a perfect society, his book became known as one of the greatest anti-utopian novels of all time. The book's message is so powerful that some say it went so far as to prevent the sinister future from realizing itself. Althought the book starts out as the story of a neurotic, paranoid man, it quickly turns into a protest against a quasi-utopian society and a totalitarian government. The book appears to be a satire at the start, similar to books such as "Gulliver's Travels", or Huxley's "Brave New World", but all too quickly the reader will "discover, quite unpleasantly, that it is not a satire at all." Nineteen Eighty-four is not simply a criticism of what Orwell saw happening in his national government with the coming of English Socialism, but a warning of the consequences of contemporary governmental practices, and what they where threatening to bring about. Perhaps the book seems so bleak because the events in the book are a somewhat logical projection from current conditions and historical environment that Orwell observed in 1948. Perhaps people would be more comftorble with the book if they could rule out in