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# A study to investigate whether Lincoln is a clone town

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Introduction

Identifying the question I was interested in comparing urban areas and therefore decided to investigate whether Lincoln is a clone town which means whether it is very similar to other cities. I then conducted an investigation in Lincoln to answer the question - 'Is there an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement?' I then used the results to prove and disprove my hypotheses which are: Null Hypothesis - There is no association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. Alternative hypothesis - There is an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement While doing this investigation we had to bear in mind the risks involved. These are outlined below: > Tripping over - the chance of this happening is quite high but the injury sustained would be minor. > Being hit by a car - chances of this happening are relatively low but injuries sustained could be severe and even result in death. > Getting lost - the chances of this happening were very low as I had a map and already knew my way around. Developing a strategy The first thing I did when planning my investigation was come up with a question which I could go on to answer. ...read more.

Middle

Working E = sum of row x sum of column � number Observed frequency - expected frequency Observed - expected� Observed - expected� � expected Shop Shrewsbury Telford Lincoln Total Independent 321 35 100 456 P Chain 152 103 111 366 Q Total 473 A 138 B 211 C 822 AxP - 473 x 456 � 822 = 262.3941606 = 262.39 AxQ - 473 x 366 � 822 = 210.6058394 = 210.61 BxP - 138 x 465 � 822 = 78.06569343 = 78.07 BxQ - 138 x 366 � 822 = 61.44525547 = 61.45 CxP - 211 x 456 � 822 = 117.0510949 = 117.05 CxQ - 211 x 366 � 822 = 93.948990511 = 93.95 Degrees of freedom = (number rows - 1) x (number columns - 1) (2-1) x (3-1) = 1 x 2 = 2 degrees of freedom Df 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.001 2 4.60 5.99 9.21 13.82 My total of 85.61 is outside my degrees of freedom. This means I will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that there is an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. Clone town test 5 points for each type of shop counted, 22 x 5 = 110 50 points for each independent shop, 100 x 5 = 5000 5 points for each chain store = 111 x 5 = 555 110 + 5000 + 555 = 5665 / � 211 (total shops) ...read more.

Conclusion

We can see that clothing and other have the most shops. Other has a wider gap with 30 independently owned and 18 chain, however, clothing has a much smaller gap with 20 independent and 27 chain. There are much fewer of the shops such as electronics/IT and travel agents. There is also a difference in gaps with travel agents having 1 independent and 1 chain, however, electronics/IT has 0 independent and 8 chain. Presenting a summary In this investigation I found out that Lincoln is a clone to border town. A clone town is a town where the high street or other major shopping areas are significantly dominated by chain stores. I also found, by using the chi squared test, that there is an association in Lincoln between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. If I was doing this investigation again I might expand it by looking for clusters of chain stores in certain areas and doing a nearest neighbour experiment. I might also look at a larger area and split in into more areas. I would also be more careful with the choices of whether it is a chain store as people have different opinions on what can be classed as a chain store and how many there have to be of the shop before it stops being independent. Overall I think this investigation went rather well and I was happy with my results. ...read more.

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