What is meant by the term Urbanisation?

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Alice Brady 13JMW

  1. What is meant by the term Urbanisation?

  Urbanisation is the process in which the number of people living in cities increases compared with the number of people living in rural areas. A country is considered to be urbanised when over 50% of its population lives in urban places. In the UK the movement of people from rural to urban areas followed the industrial revolution as people were needed to work in the factories in the CBD. It took place throughout the 19th and Early 20th Centuries in Europe and North America. By 1950 most of the people in these two continents lived in urban area. However their urbanisation was relatively slow, allowing government’s time to plan and provide for the needs of increasing urban populations, in Less Economically Developed Countries urbanisation serves to be a much bigger problem and it is here where the world's largest cities are.

  A range of economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental factors affect urbanisation. Government policies in many developing countries promote industrialisation and international capitalist economies. Urbanisation is encouraged socially and culturally through the media, and environmental factors such as the seasonality of agricultural work, may encourage urbanisation during the agricultural off-season. Urbanisation is caused by a number of factors; one example in an LEDC is that people move to the city to get jobs in the rapidly expanding industries. Rural to urban migration is happening on a massive scale due to population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas.

 ‘Push’ and ‘Pull’ factors either attract or deter members of the population from living in a particular place. For example if there is better healthcare or education in the city then you move to the city to be nearer it.

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  Urbanisation results in urban sprawl. Urban sprawl is the expansion of urban areas into surrounding non-urban areas. In "developing" countries it occurs largely as a result of growing cities. In "developed" countries car-dependence is a major factor. For example in London UK, people may prefer to live in the outskirts of the city where it is less congested and polluted and then commute to work using public transport or their own cars.

 Rapid urbanisation occurred during the period of industrialisation that took place in Europe and North America in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Many people moved from ...

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