Cache level 3 Unit 1 Service Providers and Legislation

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E1 and E2

A statutory service is a legal requirement in the country funded by the local government. It is provided by the local government after a law has been passed to say that this type of service must be provided such as education for 5 to 16 years old. These services are provided by local authorises. These services are provided by paid trained members of staff. “Statutory services are financed by the state, which collect money through local and national taxation and National Insurance” Beaver et al, (2008) p3. Schools are a type of statutory service that provides care and education for children. In the U.K school is compulsory for children age 5 to 16 years (year 1 to year 11). Children education is divided into 2 stages primary for children aged 5 to 11 years and secondary for children aged 11 to 16 years .In Wales most primary school provide nursery and reception classes often called pre - school which provide free education to children aged 3 to 4, after completing reception these children then move on to year 1. Nursery and reception is optional for parents but for parents wanting to get back to work as soon as possible this service gives them free childcare and the freedom to do this. This also gives parents time for themselves and an opportunity to socially with other parents. Children attending nursery attend for half a day and from reception to year 11 which attend a full day which is 9am to 3.30pm primary schools and around 8.30am to 3.00pm for secondary schools. State schools which are statutory schools are required by law to follow the National Curriculum which provides children with a balanced education through their school life. Schools also provide after school clubs for children to progress in a chosen hobby and music lessons. Schools also safeguard and protect children from harm from any kind of abuse whether at home or outside school by working with other multi agencies like social services. Schools play a key role in health promotion from providing tooth brushing and tooth paste in school and teaching the younger children to brush their teeth to providing sexual educational lessons to secondary school children.

A voluntary service is a non-profit organisation. These services meet the needs not met by any other service in the area. No law has been passed by the government for this service to exist. Some staff are paid for their work but most are not. “Organisations are referred to as voluntary when they are founded by individuals who want to help certain groups of people who they believe are in need of support” Beaver et al (2008) p3.

Flying start is a voluntary service that is a Welsh Assembly Government programme for families with children aged 4 and under. The programme was started as they were aware of the difficulty parents had getting back to work after having children. They aim to support all parents with childcare and other forms of family support. They are targeted in areas that are most deprived in Wales.

A private service is an organisation that has an owner. This organisation makes a profit. “Independent services are usually private services provided by individuals, groups of people or companies to meet a demand, provide a service, and make a financial profit” Beaver et al (2008) p5. Child minders are a private service they are professionals providing care and education for children usually in their own home. Child minders work around the parent’s timetable making it easier for them to get back to work or education. The child ratio is often smaller so children get more attention than they would usually in a statutory service where the ratio of child to practitioner is higher.  


A piece of legislation is a law passed by the government in the U.K. In Wales the Welsh Assembly Government has the power to make minor legislation and to issue statutory and non – statutory guidance to public bodies in Wales.

The United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) of 1989 came into force in the U.K. in 1990. There are 54 articles (statements) with two optional protocols added in 2002. As stated on children rights wales (2012) these two protocols support children who are at risk of armed conflict and sexual exploitation by increasing the level of protection.

Each child by law since 1990 has to right to life, the right to protection against discrimination, the right to protection from all kinds of abuse whether physical, emotional, neglect or sexual, the right to privacy and the right to education. “The four core principles of the convention are non – discrimination, devotion to the best interests to the child, the rights to life, survival and development, and respect for the views of the child” Unicef (2012). The Children Act 1989 came into force in the U.K. in 1990. Its purpose is to protect children in every situation. “The Children Act applies to children and young people in custody and the secure estate as well as to children and young people living in the community” Justice (2011).

According to Rcpsych (2012) the main aims of the children act 1989 is to bring together private and public law, to protect children and enable parents to challenge state intervention through achieving a better balance between the both, to encourage between statutory authorities and parents more corporation, to uphold the use of voluntary arrangements and to rearrange the structure of the courts to assist management of family proceedings.

The children Act 2004 focuses more on a multi-agency approach and provides the legal framework for the “every child matter” outcomes in England. “In England to make sure that every child matters would work well, a new children act has been passed. The 2004 children’s act puts new duties on local authorities to ensure that all the different services that work with children and their families work more efficiently together” Tassoni (2007) p277. Here in Wales we have our own version which is similar to ECM but different in some ways called “the children and young people’s rights to action to 2004”.

The Welsh Assembly Government took on board the UNCRC legislation and translated this framework into seven core aims, all children should have “a flying start in life, a comprehensive range of education and learning opportunities, enjoy the best possible health and are free from abuse, victimisation and exploration, have access to play, leisure and cultural activities, are listened to, treated with respect and have their race and cultural identity recognised, have a safe home and community which supports physical and emotional well – being and are not disadvantaged by poverty” Assembly Wales (2012).

Since 1989 these pieces of legislation has been supporting children but giving them their own rights and under these rights protecting them from harm in all settings. The children act under section 17.1 (A) also supports the family of the child in need making the act look at the child in a more holistic way. “Local authorities can provide a range of services for children who are in need. Such services are intended to provide support and help to families, including families of children with disabilities and other special needs” Women’s Aid (2008).

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Childcare practitioners need to work within a framework that represents excellent principles and values. Such frameworks can be found in documents like the CACHE statement of values and the Foundation Phase or EYFS (Early Years Foundation Stage). Bruce (2007) says children are the core of are practice and their needs are important.

CACHE states that as childcare practitioners we must put the child first by “ensuring the child’s safety and welfare, showing compassion and sensitivity when appropriate, respecting each child as an individual, upholding the child’s rights and dignity, enabling the child to achieve ...

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