Types and Signs of Abuse

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Health and Social Care National Extended Diploma


Physical Abuse

Physical abuse is the non-accidental use of physical force to coerce or to intentionally inflict bodily harm to another person. It often causes physical discomfort, pain or injury, but the person affected does not have to have an injury to have experienced physical abuse.

Physical abuse may include, for example:

* Beating the person

* Punching or slapping http://worldartsme.com/images/hulk-fist-punch-clipart-1.jpg

* Burning or scalding

* Pushing or shoving

* Hitting with a hand or instrument or slapping

* Rough handling or physical coercion

* Stabbing with an object

* Tripping them over

* Spitting on them

* Tying them to furniture

* Using or misusing physical restraints

* Restraining them through the use of alcohol, tranquillizers or other medication

* Forcing them to remain in beds or chairs

* Forcing them to remain in rooms (including locking them in)

Caring for someone who is frail or who has special needs can be very stressful. In many cases, other contributory factors are also present and this additional stress on the carer appears to be the factor that triggers the abuse. The following factors may contribute to an abusive relationship:

* Financial difficulties

* Lack of respite care

* Inadequate support to give high quality care

* Heavy physical or emotional cost of the carer

* Lack of recognition for the role—affecting health and wellbeing of carer

* Personal stress, i.e. looking after an adult as well as own children

* Unfamiliarity with the role of caring for someone and the responsibilities involved.

Many reasons can cause this type of abuse. For example, the abuser may suffer with a mental illness or they had a difficult growing up as a child and they were not taught their primary socialisation skills. The abuser may be angry and upset and they like to take it out on other people to make them understand how they feel. The abuser’s marriage may have been failing which means there are a lot of arguments. The abuser may feel confused and disorientated and doesn't understand what it going on.

Emotional/ Psychological Abuse

Emotional/ psychological abuse can happen to anyone. It can happen when the abuser makes comments that make sure their victim feels isolated and try to lower your self-esteem. It is a form of abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behaviour that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

* Threats of violence or abandonment

* Intentionally frightening

* Making an individual fear that they will not receive the food or care they need

* Failing to check allegations of abuse against them

* Making derogative or slanderous statements about an individual to others

* Socially isolating an individual, failing to let them have visitors

* Withholding important information

* Demeaning an individual because of the language they speak

* Intentionally misinterpreting traditional practices

* Repeatedly raising the issue of death

* Telling an individual that they are too much trouble

* Ignoring or excessively criticizing

* Being over-familiar and disrespectful

* Unreasonably ordering an individual around; treating an individual like a servant

Signs & symptoms of emotional/ psychological abuse: https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/236x/50/82/83/508283f5e02a5271e67a56db496aa649.jpg

* Anxiety

* Depression

* Withdrawn, isolated

* Feelings of guilt

* Low self-esteem

* Tying them to furniture

* Insomnia

* Self-harm

* Feeling threatened/ frightened

* Unexpected changes in behaviour i.e. acting angry or upset

This type of abuse can happen when the abuser themselves are being subjected to an unpleasant situation and they then are take their feelings out on somebody else. They may feel insecure about something and might feel confused and don't know who to talk to, so they take it out on other people. The abuser may also be abused their selves at home or within work; they may have a low-self esteem and have a lot of built up anger.
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Sexual Abuse

Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is forcing undesired sexual behaviour by one person upon another. When that force is immediate, of short duration, or infrequent, it is called sexual assault.

* Acquaintance Rape: Acquaintance assault involves coercive sexual activities that occur against a person’s will by means of force, violence, duress, or fear of bodily injury. These sexual activities are imposed upon them by someone they know (a friend, date, acquaintance, etc.).

* Drug facilitated assault: when drugs or alcohol are used to compromise an individual’s ability to consent to sexual ...

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