• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Biomechanics of Long Jump

Extracts from this document...


Mechanics and Sport Performance



Brief        pg3

Main Text        pg3

Appendix        pg6

Reference List        pg9

The aim of this assessment is to analysis the long jump technique by applying the following kinetic and kinematics principles: force, inertia, momentum, friction, Newton’s Laws, free body force diagrams and impulse-momentum relationships which underpin the mechanics of sport.

The long jump is a speed event which comprises of four phases: approach run, take off, flight through the air, landing.  To achieve maximum distance in the long jump the athlete will have to balance three components - speed, technique and strength (Carr 1999).

The approach phase of the long jump as stated by Hays (1993) is to get the athlete up to the optimum position for take off with as much speed as the athlete can control during this part of the jump so the rhythm in the approach run is important to ensure the ideal speed is achieved at take off and also accuracy in hitting the take off board.  The generation of the forward motion is created by a ground reaction force where the earths force is responding to the athletes backwards thrust against the earths surface (Carr 1997).  The ground reaction force R is equal in action line and magnitude to the downwards thrust of the foot during running but in the opposite direction.

...read more.


F = dp = d (mv)

dt        dt

F being the force acting on the body which equals the rate of change (d/dt) of momentum (mv) (Bartlett 1997).  The equation below shows that mass times acceleration has a relation to force

F = dp = m dv = ma

          dt         dt

The two equations can be rearranged to show the impulse-momentum relationship (Bartlett 1997).

Fdt =  d(mv)

The impulse is evaluated by numerical/graphical integration, which can be performed from a force-time record obtained from a force platform (Carr 1997).  If the mass is constant the equation can be, F∆t = mv, where F is the mean value of the force acting during a time interval t during which the velocity of the object changes by v (Bartlett 1997).  The change in vertical lift of the jumper from the horizontal velocity depends on the impulse of the force exerted by the foot off the board and inversely proportional to the mass of the jumper.

From the take off phase the main objective in the flight of the technique is to undertake the optimum body position for landing (Hays 1993).  However the take off foot pushing back on the board causes the body to rotate forwards which will continue until a something has acted against it to stop the rotation (Carr 1997).  The speed of rotation is controlled by the body’s moment of inertia.  So this usually provides the performer with two main techniques to choose from: the hang (figure 3)

...read more.


e angular momentum of the body parts moving in one direction and the angular of momentum of the parts moving backwards.  With this action and reaction the athlete’s trunk rotates backwards as the lead leg and arm swing downwards and backwards.

The last phase to complete the long jump is the landing, it’s critical to get those vital centimetres to land right.  A maximum jump is obtained when the heels touchdown at the point where the centre of gravity of the body would have landed (Wirhed 1996) (figure 6).  If the heel strike is too far in front the athlete will fall backwards and if they touch sooner then the athlete will roll forwards.  Figure 7 shows the action and reaction of the landing.  Carr (1997) expresses the magnitude of the earth’s reaction force pushing against the athlete depends on how much force the athlete is pushing against the sand which acts as a shock absorber to break down the force.


Figure 1 – Ground force reaction


 Figure 2 – Penultimate stride


Figure 3 – The hang


Figure 4 – The hitch-kick


Figure 5 – Forwards rotation in a tight fixed position


Figure 6 – Maximum jump length


Figure 7 – Action and reaction of the landing


Reference List

Bartlett, R. (1997) Introduction to Sport Biomechanics, London: E&FN Spon

Carr, G. (1999) Fundamentals of Track and Field, Leeds: Human Kinetics

Carr, G. (1997) Mechanics of Sport, Leeds: Human Kinetics

Hays, J.G. (1993) The Biomechanics of Sport Techniques, London: Prentice Hall International

LeVeau, B.F. (1992) Biomechanics of Human Motion, London: W.B. Saunders Co.

Wirhed, R. (1992) Athletic Ability & The Anatomy of Motion, London: Mosby

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Mechanics & Radioactivity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Mechanics & Radioactivity essays

  1. Investigating a ski jump

    The ball bearing is taken as a point, as the motion of a rolling ball differs from anything else. 3. Gravity does not affect the horizontal velocity Prediction/Hypothesis I have based my prediction on the calculated formula R=V(4hH) The height of the table H is measured to be 92cm and is to remain constant h (cm)

  2. Objectives: To determine the center of gravity of a body of irregular shapes

    We measure the time taken for the pendulum to complete on rotation by using the stopwatch. From the period and length of the thread, we can calculate the gravitational acceleration. In addition, we can find out g from the slope of the graph to be plotted.

  1. Investigatin a ski jump

    Equation 3 Equations 2 and 3 can now be substituted into equation 1. Range(x)=Velocity(v) x Time(t) R=V(2gh) x V(2H /g) g cancels out R=V(2h) x V(2H) R=V(4hH)............ Equation 4 Assumptions 1. The friction between the ball and the curtain rail, along with the air resistance are neglible, therefore, will not be accounted for in this experiment.

  2. Drayton Manor Theme Park: Centrepedial Force

    probably seen footage of astronauts floating around space shuttles, this is because they too are in free-fall but are travelling so fast horizontally they never come in contact with the earth.7 (7) A common misconception about weightlessness, more properly termed microgravity7, is to think of things being weightless when there

  1. See how the angle of a ramp affects the speed of a cylinder moving ...

    Angle size� Mass of cylinder kg Gravity Equation for height Height (m) Potential energy (J) 3 0.19818 9.8 Sin a� x 0.3 0.02 0.03 6 0.19818 9.8 Sin a� x 0.3 0.03 0.06 9 0.19818 9.8 Sin a� x 0.3 0.05 0.1 12 0.19818 9.8 Sin a� x 0.3 0.06

  2. Force and Newton's three Laws

    Now if we also take the motion of the Earth around the sun then there is an additional factor of five times lower! In other words, these accelerations, even though they are real and can be measured - easily with today's high-tech instrumentation - they are much, much lower than

  1. Role of the RAF in second world war

    being captured as they would be over British soil if they were to eject. The RAF did not have this problem because they could return to their airfield as soon as they reached "bingo fuel" (the state at which there is only enough fuel to return to base with a small reserve to orbit).

  2. Investigating the factors affecting tensile strength of human hair.

    Variables To Control...(keep the same) To investigate...(measuring/changing) Hair MUST NOT be: Tensile Strength (masses applied on hair) co loured/dyed Thickness of hair/colour of hair straightened (by applying heat) permed (by applying heat) curly (naturally) from the same person Hair MUST be: black or blonde straight (naturally)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work