• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Genetic engineering

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Biology presentation 10thMarch,2002 Genetic engineering As we all knew, the most important scientific event of the 20th century was probably the 1953 discovery, by James Watson and Francis Crick, of the structure of the DNA molecule, which is the basis of heredity. There are some practical applications of this knowledge. And the main two types of applications are 1) for agricultural purpose (genetic modified organism GMO and genetic modified food GMF) and 2) for medical purpose. Food application How to make cheese from yeasts? In the past hard cheeses are made from whole milk by adding an enzyme called chymosin, which was formerly extracted from the stomach of calves. Nowadays, the gene for making chymosin was transferred from cows to yeast because 1) ...read more.

Middle

However this is not a complete cure and they will still pass the CF gene onto their children and descendants. To actually cure this genetic illness, the defective gene must be replaced throughout the body. Again performing gene therapy but this time in early embryo before tissue differentiation has taken place would do this. Because if the genetic defect is detected in an early embryo, it is possible to add the gene at this stage, allowing the normal gene to be present in all tissues including the reproductive tissues. Although this technique has been used to add foreign genes to mice, sheep, pigs, and cows, at present, no laboratory is known to be attempting this well-developed technology in humans because this procedure would put embryos at unacceptable risk due to the inherent rate of failure and potential damage to the embryo. ...read more.

Conclusion

and iron (leading to anaemia). Two genetic engineers have transferred the genes for vitamin A from other species into rice, creating a strain of rice, which is rich in vitamin A. The amount of rice in a typical third world diet could provide about 15% of the recommended daily allowance of vitamin A, sufficient to prevent blindness. Genetic engineers also intend to produce a rice variety rich in iron. But this is a more difficult problem than increasing rice's vitamin A content because rice contains an enzyme called phytase. And this enzyme prevents the body from absorbing iron. Because rice plants cannot reproduce without adequate phytase in the grains, so it does little good to breed for increased iron content. People do hope to be able to find a gene coding for a protein that will break down phytase when the rice is cooked. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Problem of Endangerment in Siberian Tigers

    3 star(s)

    Another risk could be to other Siberian tigers. The tigers are known for being territorial. I f a zoo does not have the Siberian tigers spread widely apart; attacks on each other could be a problem. Siberian tigers mark their own territory which in essence is their home.

  2. Gm foods and Gene therapy

    Vector systems are able to be separated into; * Non-viral vectors * Viral vectors Genetic research has advanced in a dramatic fashion in the previous decade or so, to the point where it

  1. Management style, culture & organizational structure.

    A range of DNA molecules will be synthesised ranging from full length to very short. The important point is that in tube A, all the fragments will stop at an A nucleotide. In tube T, all the fragments will stop at a T nucleotide , and so on.

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    The era of gene therapy began on Sept. 14, 1990, when the first therapeutic, genetically engineered cells were infused into a 4-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, an inherited life-threatening immune deficiency. The infused cells were lymphocytes from the girl's own blood, into which researchers had inserted copies of a missing gene that directs production of ADA.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work