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How An Enzyme's Structure Enables It To Catalyse A Reaction.

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Chris Fox

How An Enzyme Structure Enables It To Catalyst A Reaction.

An enzyme works at body temperature within our body but can be very temperamental as the slightest of changes in our body can cause these enzymes to denature and not carry out there function correctly. Enzymes work to help break down larger food molecules so we can digest them and use them in daily functions. This can be down to the structure of the enzymes. Enzymes rely on energy to catalyst the reaction of the substrate.

        They are special as there structure is unique. This is because they are shaped to specially fit the substrates so they speed up this reaction. This is called the lock and key theory that was suggested by Emil Fischer’s. But it has been said after this theory that the reaction is only at its optimum once the substrate has bound to the enzymes active site.  Also the enzyme structure is developed to have an optimum ph level it can work in. Once in the optimum ph it attracts the substrate at a faster rate again speeding up the reaction in the body. If the enzyme is not at the optimum body temperature then it denatures so it slows up the reaction instead of speeding it up. This happens when a person’s body temperature goes to high and the reaction is slower also when the body is to cold. There are three possible inhibitors that enzymes can attract due to the enzymes structure. The ones that help the reaction are the competitive inhibitors that have a very similar shape to the natural substrate so therefore fit the enzymes active site. This reaction though is a reversible reaction when it involves a competitive inhibitor. There is also activator that may be necessary to complete the structure of an enzyme fully as these contain chloride ions and these are vital for the enzyme salivary amylase. The reaction is then able to take place at a increased rate. The enzymes active site has a positive charge so it can attract the substrate. This is because the substrates have a negative charge and are attracted by the positively charged enzyme structure. But the main benefit of the enzymes structure is that it is shaped for substrates to already fit its active site and so therefore the reaction can take place almost instantly and not have to change its shape taking time and then react taking even longer. Without the enzyme being shaped this way the reaction would take a lot longer and would not be able to work at fast rate. So would argue that this is the most important part of an enzymes structure.

        In conclusion enzymes are very complexed and there structure does help them work out at a catalyst pace. But this is only possible if their surrounding factors are right and are correct. For example the temperature and the bodies ph levels and also whether it is denatured or not.

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