#### How the extension of the spring will change or vary, when force is applied.

How the extension of the spring will change or vary, when force is applied. Aim My aim is to see how the extension of the spring will change or vary, when force is applied. The variable in this investigation is the weights. Other possible variables that can be investigated are the different materials of the spring. Fair Test It will be a fair test because the same steel spring will be used on all of them. I will check that it has not reached its elastic limit. I will make sure that while the weights are on the spring, the spring should be still. Equipment Steel spring 8x 1N weights Clamp Stand Meter stick/ruler The measurements that I will need to take are the different lengths of the spring when it has different weights on it. There will be 8 different measurements of the length of the springs. The weights will range from 0.1kg to 0.8kg. The best way to carry out the experiment is to use a stand and attach a clamp to it, you should hang the spring on it and add the weights. This way the spring is still and it will stay in the same position for every weight. Diagram Method * Set up all the equipment as shown in the diagram * Add chosen weights to the spring * Record you results I will need to take the readings for loading and unloading of the weights because then I can see the extension of the spring. I will check that I have not exceeded the elastic

• Word count: 954
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigation on the effect of the stiffness of a spring on the oscillation period.

PHYSICS COURSEWORK Investigation on the effect of the stiffness of a spring on the oscillation period. AIM To investigate how the stiffness of a spring effects the period. APPARATUS Clamp and stand, stopwatch, springs and mass (constant). METHOD A clamp and stand will be set up with a combination of springs attached to it and hanging from the set of springs will be a weight carrier. The weight carrier will hold the masses, and this mass will always be constant to make it a fair test because we are testing the springs not the weights. The springs are the variables. The spring combinations will be varied and this is so we can control the strain force exerted by the spring (stiffness). For example, two springs in parallel have got twice the amount of stiffness as a single spring with springs that have equal stiffness. This is because if two springs are in parallel then they each share the weight attached to them so obviously the spring won't be extended as much as the single spring, probably only half as far as the spring will stretch for the single spring. The opposite of this happens when the springs are in series. When springs are in series, they are extended as normal as if they were single springs, so two single results will result in an extension that will be double what it would be with just one single spring. Hooke's law supports this as it suggests that the

• Word count: 1299
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Silent Spring presentation.

SILENT SPRING PRESENTATION Introduction Silent Spring is a novel written by a woman named Rachel Carson, which was published in 1962. With advance sales of 40 000 copies the book went on to be recognised in 1992 as the most influential book of the last 50 years, and was held in much the same respect and admiration as great works such as Karl Marx's 'Das Capital and Charles Darwin's 'The Origin of Species'. About the book The book takes an in depth look at the hazardous and detrimental consequences of the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides in not only agriculture, but in other activities particularly leisure. It looks in detail at the effects on soil, rivers, wildlife and humans. As well as providing information on research into such effects, a brief philosophy on the solution to cancer and suggestions for less toxic means of pest control, Carson also questions the role of science. The author queries humanity's faith in scientific and technological progress, and for the first time looked at the responsibility of industrial society in the initiation of large scale environmental suffering. Setting the stage for the environmental protection movement. In addition, Carson disproves her former belief that nature was too great and powerful a thing to ever be effected by humans and their actions. About the author Rachel Carson was born on a farm in Pennsylvania in

• Word count: 1290
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Elastic Assessment

Elastic Assessment The pulling force, which is applied, is called stretch. When you stretch a spring the difference between the stretched and the unstretched spring is called extension. In this experiment, I am going to investigate how the extension of a spring, depends on the pulling force applied to the material. My results show me that the extension of the spring is directly proportional to the force applied. Therefore when the force is doubled, the extension is also doubled. My experiment shows the characteristics of Hookes Law. Materials are said to obey Hookes Law, if their extension is directly proportional to the stretching force. Hookes Law applies to many different materials such as wood, metal and glass, extension on these materials however is too small to be measured, nearly all materials infact are elastic- they return back to their original shape when the force is removed. If force is continued to be added to a material, then we find that it reaches a point called it elastic limit. Up to this point, a spring can return back to its original shape and size, however beyond this point, the spring will become permanently stretched and deformed. Now I am going to investigate the factors, which affect the extension of an elastic cord, instead of a spring. The factors, which affect the extension of elastic, are; * The amount of force applied * The thickness of

• Word count: 1083
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### I am investigating the relationship between extension and load, therefore testing Hooke's Law.

Investigating Hooke's Law The Aim I am investigating the relationship between extension and load, therefore testing Hooke's Law. Hooke's Law is when forces are applied to a solid object and it can result in extension or compression. Hooke's Law is able to predict how a spring (or other stretchable object) would behave when force is applied to it. There are several factors that could effect the stretching of a spring: · Downward force applied to spring. · Spring material. · Length of spring. · No. of coils in spring. · Diameter of spring material. · Cross sectional area of spring. I have chosen to investigate the downward force on the spring because it is a continuous variable. Prediction I predict that the bigger the weight applied to the spring, the further the spring will stretch. The reason for this assumption is based in Hooke's Law which states that extension is proportional to load. If load increases so does extension and stretching distance. Extension = New length - Original length To see if my prediction is correct, I will run an experiment to obtain results based on the equation reported above. I will explain the results using Hooke's Law. He found that extension is proportional to the downward force acting on the spring. Hooke's Law: F=ke F = Force (Newtons) k = spring constant e = Extension in (Meters) Apparatus The equipment I used

• Word count: 1183
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Diffraction Grating with White Light Source

Physics Laboratory Report The number and the name of the experiment: Experiment C3- Diffraction Grating with White Light Source The date of experiment:19 / 5 / 08 Objectives * Estimate the wavelength of the light using a diffraction grating * Measure the angle of diffraction by simple geometry * Measure the angle of diffraction by simple spectrometer * Learn the techniques in using a spectrometer Apparatus meter rule 2 set square(woodblock) 2 Clip Diffraction grating(300 lines per mm) ray box with vertical filament 2 V low voltage power supply long pin 2 spectrometer laboratory jack color filter - red, green, blue each sodium lamp(optional) Theory In the visible wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, red, with the longest wavelength, is diffracted most; and violet, with the shortest wavelength, is diffracted least. Because each color is diffracted a different amount, each color bends at a different angle. The result is a separation of white light into the seven major colors of the spectrum or rainbow. The diffraction grating consists of many narrow slits provided for the diffraction of the light. Constructive interference occurs between waves from A traveling in the direction AA1 and waves from B traveling in the direction BB1. The path difference, BN = 1?(for the first order diffraction) In?ANB, sin = = ? d sin?1 = 1? For the other

• Word count: 1350
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Elastic constant of a spring.

Elastic constant of a spring. Planning: (a) Introduction: The aim of this experiment is to find and measure the elastic constant of a spiral spring. (b) Apparatus: (i) Light spiral spring. (ii) A scale pan. (iii) A meter rule. (iv) 2 Clamps and Stands. (v) 2 Boxes of weight. (vi) Light pointer for spring. (vii) Stop watch. (c) Method: (i) Suspend the light spring from the clamp and attach a light pointer to the spring. (ii) Set up a fixed vertical meter rule beside the spring using the clamp and stand. (iii) Attach a scale pan to the spring, and then add suitable weights, noting the reading of the pointer each time. (iv) Do this for about 8 loads on the scale pan. (v) Then remove each weight, and record the reading of the pointer each time. (vi) If the spring has not been permanently strained the reading of the pointer will return to it's original or zero reading when all the weights and the scale pan have been removed. (vii) Finally weigh the scale pan. Actual experiment. (a) Introduction: The aim of this experiment is to find and measure the elastic constant of a spiral spring. (b) Apparatus: (i) Light spiral spring. (ii) A scale pan. (iii) A meter rule. (iv) 2 Clamps and Stands. (v) 2 Boxes of weight. (vi) Light pointer for spring. (vii) Stop watch. (c) Method: (i) Suspend the light spring from the clamp and attach a light pointer to the

• Word count: 769
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigating Hooke's Law into thin wires.

INVESTIGATING HOOKE'S LAW INTO THIN WIRES AIM To find out weather or not Hooke's Law applies to thin wires. THEORY This is an investigation into Hooke's Law and how it operates in relation to the thin wires we are going to be testing. the basic equation for Hooke's Law is F=KX. What this basically means is that the force is directly proportional to the extension. This is shown in Fig 1.1. In the darkly shaded area the material is elastic and thus the Law applies. However, if the external force is too strong, the material can become permanently deformed thus meaning that Hooke's Law on longer applies. This is represented in Fig 1.1 by the lightly shaded area. ================================================================ The elastic limit - also shown in Fig 1.1 - of a material is determined by the molecular structure of the material. The distance between molecules in a stress-free material depends on the balance between the molecular forces of attraction and repulsion. When an external force is applied, creating stress within the material, the molecular distances change and the material becomes deformed. If the molecules are tightly bound to each other, even for a large amount of stress there will be little strain. If, however, the molecules are loosely bonded to each other, a relatively small amount of stress will cause a large amount of strain. Below the elastic

• Word count: 1894
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### What does the behaviour of P and S waves tell geologists about the structure of the Earth's interior?

What does the behaviour of P and S waves tell geologists about the structure of the Earth's interior? Vibrations are produced in the Earth's crust when rocks in which elastic strain has been building up suddenly rupture, and then rebound. The vibrations can vary from barely noticeable to catastrophically destructive. Earthquakes can release energy thousands of times greater than the world's first atom bomb. Six types of shock waves are generated in the process. Two are classified as body waves-that is, they travel through the Earth's interior-and the other four are surface waves. The waves are further differentiated by the kinds of motions they impart to rock particles. Primary or compressional waves (P waves) send particles oscillating back and forth in the same direction as the waves are travelling, whereas secondary or transverse shear waves (S waves) impart vibrations perpendicular to their direction of travel. P waves always travel at higher velocities than S waves, so whenever an earthquake occurs, P waves are the first to arrive and be recorded at geophysical research stations throughout the world. An earthquake will occur when rocks, (usually at plate boundaries) are put under immense strain or pressure. This pressure will eventually fracture the rock, similar to when bending a brittle object such as a wafer, or a ruler. This fracture can occur in several different

• Word count: 1350
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigation into the elasticity of a set of springs under differing conditions.

Investigation into the elasticity of a set of springs under differing conditions. Preliminary investigations. The object of this investigation is to discover how springs react to differing situations. I plan to implement several strategies to discover this. I plan on beginning by ensuring that each of the springs are as similar as is possible, I plan to do this by checking that each of the springs are the same length and that they have the same no. of coils. I will conduct the experiment as scientifically as possible; this will be done with the use of accurate tools and the careful tabulation of the results. I will be taking into account the: Variation in the extension of the spring. How the springs are affected with the changing of weights. How the springs are affected when the way in which they are placed is changed i.e. in parallel, series and also when they are on their own. Another product of this experiment will be the proving of Hookes law: K = F / X Spring Stiffness = Force / Extension T = 2 mass K x g (Spring Stiffness is also measured by the gradient of the graph) Where : T = Periodic Time (s) K = Spring stiffness G = Acceleration due to gravity (m/s) This means that K is the spring stiffness (or spring constant), F is the weight or force applied to the spring and X is the extension of the spring after the force has been applied.

• Word count: 2326
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science