#### Simple Harmonic Motion of a mass-spring system.

Immanuel Lutheran College S.6 Physics (AL) 2003-2004 Experiment Report 1 Name: Lam Kong Lan Class: 6B Class No.: 7 Title: Simple Harmonic Motion of a mass-spring system Objective: . To investigate the motion of a spring-mass system undergoing oscillation and to verify the relationship between the period of oscillation of a mass hanging from a spring and the mass. 2. To find out the force constant and effective mass of the spring. Apparatus: > > Light spring > Stop-watch > Horizontal bar > Balance > > Retort stand and clamp > Slotted mass with hanger 2 ×100g and 5 × 20g Theory: By Hooke's Law, for a mass m hanging from a spring, at the equilibrium position, the extension e of the spring is given by mg = ke where k is the force constant of the spring. Let x be the displacement of spring from the equilibrium position, then we have an expression of the net force acting on the mass as Fnet = -k( e + x ) + mg = -kx . Here, the negative sign means that it is a restoring force and the direction of Fnet is always opposite to x. Moreover, according to Newton's second law, the equation of motion: Fnet = ma ? Fnet = ma = -kx, then a = - (k/m)x = -w2x ? = As the mass m executes simple harmonic motion (SHM), the period of oscillation is defined as ? T2 = 4?2() Therefore, a graph with T2 as the y-axis and m as the

• Word count: 1419
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The Passage - P83 Fathers and Sons, Ivan Turgenev

The Passage (P83 Fathers and Sons, Ivan Turgenev) The country through which they were driving was not in the least picturesque. Field after field stretched away to the horizon, now sloping gently up, now dropping down again. Here and there was a copse, and winding ravines sparsely planted with low bushes, reminding one of the way in which the old maps showed them in the time of Catherine. There were little streams, too, with hollow banks and diminutive ponds with narrow dams, hamlets with squat little huts beneath blackened and often half collapsing roofs, and crooked threshing barns with wattled walls and gaping doorways opening on to abandoned threshing floors, and churches, some brick-built with the stucco peeling off in patches, others of wood with crosses awry and churchyards that had gone to wrack and ruin slowly Arkydy's heart sank. As though to complete the pattern the peasants whom they met on the way were all in rags and mounted on the sorriest little nags; willows with broken branches and bark hanging in strips stood like tattered beggars on the roadside; emaciated and shaggy crows, gaunt with hunger, were greedily tearing up the grass along the ditches. They looked as if they had just been snatched from the murderous talons of some terrifying monster; and the pitiful fight of the sickly cattle in the setting of that lovely spring day conjured up like a white

• Word count: 335
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The physics of white dwarf stars.

A collision where one party collides with another and leaves the scene is considered to be illegal in the United States. If a white dwarf would collide with the sun this would be the exact case. It would take around an hour for the white dwarf to go completely through the sun and then after causing great destruction and changing the chemical and physical properties of the sun it would just continue on its path and leave behind massive destruction. The first time a white dwarf and main sequence collisions were studied it was done by Michael Shara, Giora Shaviv and Oded Regev at Tel Aviv University and then Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa. These scientists use supercomputers to study the effects of various collisions. They concluded that if a sun like star was hit by a white dwarf 10 million times as dense, the sun like star would be destroyed and only minor warming would take place on the outside of the white dwarf. If the sun were to go through this type of collision it would not annihilate the earth but would cause all the water in both the atmosphere and in the oceans to boil away. No longer having the gravitational pull of the sun, the earth and other planets would wonder the galaxy. The Pauli exclusion principle is defined by Dr. Steven S. Zumdahl, "In a given atom no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers." Due to this principle,

• Word count: 948
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigating the Vertical Oscillations of a Loaded Spring.

Investigating the Vertical Oscillations of a Loaded Spring Aims: The aim of this investigation is to find the elastic constant of the spring under study. The elastic constant of material is always useful to know and in some cases vital. For instance the elastic constant of a bungee rope is vital. It will tell the operator of the ride by how much the bungee rope will extend, using Hookes law (F=kx), and so how far the rider will fall. Using this they can calibrate the ride so as the give the rider the best possible experience. Because of this the aim of this experiment is to find out through experimentation the elastic constant of a material and find out if it is the same as what is stated in the specifications of the material. The object under investigation is a metal spring. Method: To find the elastic constant of the spring I will attach a mass (a weight with its mass measured on the scales) to it, then stretch it to a set amount from its normal location (this being where the attachment hook rests when no other forces are applied). Doing this I will then let go and time the oscillations of the spring (one oscillation meaning leaving the starting position, passing the rest position, reaching the aphelion, then returning to the starting position, or simpler one cycle). To get an accurate measurement of period of the oscillations I will time how long it takes to reach 10

• Word count: 2751
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### My aim in this experiment is to investigate how the compression of a spring affects the amount of kinetic energy transferred to the trolley that it is attached to.

Trolley Investigation Aim My aim in this experiment is to investigate how the compression of a spring affects the amount of kinetic energy transferred to the trolley that it is attached to. Scientific Knowledge In any compressed spring there is potential elastic energy. This can be calculated using the formula: Elastic Energy = 1/2 k x 2 When the spring is released it transfers the elastic energy mainly into kinetic energy. The formula that is used to calculate this energy is: Kinetic energy = 1/2 m v 2 However to find the velocity of an object you must first calculate its speed. This is done using the formula: Speed = Distance Time In any case, the amount of elastic energy that an object has will affect the amount of energy transferred to kinetic energy. Inevitably if there is more elastic energy that means that there is a larger quantity that can be transferred, resulting in a bigger final amount of kinetic energy. Safety I will carry out my experiment in a safe, secure area so that no harm is caused to anyone or anything. Dangers that may be encountered during this investigation include the fast (or slow!) moving trolley, possibly causing damage to interfering obstacles or people. To ensure that this does not happen I will clear the area before carrying out the experiment. I will ensure that people participating in the experiment are standing and not

• Word count: 2800
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Solar cells

Solar cells Coursework Aim I am trying to find out the relationship between light intensity and current produced by a solar cell and to explain how this happens. Background Research Solar cells need a sustainable amount of electricity to function properly. Solar cells transfer light energy into electrical energy. Although they involve no moving parts, they are high-tech solid-state devices. They are constructed by layered special materials called semi conducts; these are linked by electrical wires and arranged on a panel of glass (module). The panel will give out more energy depending light intensity it is getting. Light energy contains photons witch hit the solar panel and bump electrically charged particles around in the cell they then cause the electrons to move around and complete the circuit. This process repeats itself to give out energy. Prediction I think that when the light is moved further away than the solar cell the current will reduce because a solar cell needs light to create its current therefore without light it would not work. For example if it is moved four times, closer the solar cell will be 4 times more powerful. However if the Solar cell is moved four times further away then the current would of decreased and then stopped. Scientific Reason for Prediction I think this because if the power source is moved closer the light intensity will

• Word count: 805
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### What affects the kinetic energy of a trolley?

What affects the kinetic energy of a trolley? In this experiment I will be trying to see if the amount a spring is compressed affects the speed of a Trolley when released against the trolley. I'll be using a 'light gate' attached to a time to help me to find out how fast the trolley passes the light gate out, from this I will be able to figure out the speed and how much Kinetic energy the trolley has. Plan Aim: To see if the amount a spring is compressed by affects the speed of the trolley pushed by the spring. I will also be looking to see if I can find any patterns in the results I get and see if there is any way I can predict what. Variables: Independent Variable: In this experiment I will have only one independent variable, which I will change though out the experiment. The independent variable will be how much the spring is compressed, each time I compress the spring I will increase it by another centimetre until I have done it from 1 - 15 cm. From this I should be able to see if there is a regular increase in the speed the trolley travels at when I increase the amount that the spring is compressed by. Dependent Variables: I'll have several Dependent variables in this experiment to try and help keep it a fair test. The first one being that I'll keep all the other variables the same (e.g. Mass and Distance). I'll also make sure that I use all the same

• Word count: 2139
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science