#### We are aiming to investigate the effect of force upon a spring. We will also investigate Hooke's law, to see what happens using two springs in parallel and series, and how this effects the spring constant.

Investigation - Hooke's Law Aim: We are aiming to investigate the effect of force upon a spring. We will also investigate Hooke's law, to see what happens using two springs in parallel and series, and how this effects the spring constant. Background: I know that Hooke's law states that spring extension is proportional to stretching force, so long as the spring was not permanently stretched. In this investigation we will explore this statement. Trial Run: We did a trial run before starting the main experiment, and we found that we had to carefully put the weights on to the hanger, as the spring quickly stretches and could break. We also had to make sure we took the measurements at the same place each time, i.e. at the bottom of the spring or the bottom of the hanger, as this could affect our results. We also found that the spring could take 10N without deforming. Prediction: From the scientific knowledge above I can make a prediction about this experiment. I predict that the extension of the spring will be proportional to the force applied to it, and that it will return to its original size when the force is released. When we have two springs in parallel I predict the force will have an effect on them as a whole, and they won't stretch as much as the single spring, so the spring constant will increase. When two springs are in series I predict the force will have

• Word count: 1535
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### How the angle of a solar cell affects its output.

How the angle of a solar cell affects its output Introduction: The aim of the experiment is to investigate the relationship between the angles of a solar cell from its light source to the output of the solar cell. I will be able to see how the relationship changes (if there is a change) by the results which I record. Apparatus: The equipment which I will require to carry out my experiment are: A solar cell A multimeter A light source These are the things which I will need to carry out the experiment but I will also need equipment make sure the experiment is accurate, these are: A clamp side with clamp, a piece of wood and blue tack, this will act as a stand on which my solar cell will be placed. The clamp stand and clamp will hold the piece of flat wood in a fixed position, to which the solar cell will be blue tacked into position, this will keep the cell firm and steady. A ruler will also be used to measure the distance of the solar cell from the light source. And a protractor will be used to measure the angle at which the solar cell is placed Diagram Safety In order to carry out this experiment in a safe way I will have to consider a few safety issues. I will have to be careful while working around the light. Because once the light has been switched on and left of a period of time the filament within the light bulb will start to heat up (because of the

• Word count: 1321
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Experiment to measure deflection when a force is applied to a cantilever.

Sc1 Investigation - bending of a Cantilever. Experiment to measure deflection when a force is applied to a cantilever. Introductory Diagram Aim To find out whether varying the load has any affect on the deflection (?d) of the ruler. Theory Elasticity is the property, which allows a material to regain its shape after being distorted. Some materials like, rubber bands, are much more elastic than others. The elastic limit of a material is the maximum amount by which it can be stretched and still regain its original shape after the distorting forces are removed. If a material is stretched beyond its elastic limit its shape is permanently changed. ' The deformation of a material is proportional to the force is applied to it, provided the elastic limit is not exceeded'. This is known as Hooke's Law, named after its discoverer, Robert Hooke, a 17th century scientist. Young's Modulus When stress is applied to a material, strain is produced in the material. The strain is proportional to the stress, provided the stress does not exceed a limit known simply as the 'limit of proportionality'. Within this limit, the value of is a constant for that material, and is known as the Young Modulus for the material. The Young Modulus (E) = Provided the limit of proportionality is not exceeded. Before we can work out the Young Modulus we need to know about stress and strain.

• Word count: 981
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Stretching Springs/Hookes Law.

Mustafa Rafik 0.7Api Science coursework Title: Stretching Springs/Hookes Law Mr Bhatwadekar Scientific knowledge A force is able to change the shape of an object, the more the strength and force you apply, the more the shape of the object will change because the particles of the object are being moved therefore it will change the shape of the object because of the particles being pushed for e.g. A force is also able to change the motion of the object. The force, which is applied to the object, makes the object stay in that shape which is the cause of the force hitting the object and making it change, this will not go back to its original shape like shown in number 2, this is because the particles have been hit so hard that the attraction of the particles which makes them go back to its original shape have been damaged so it will then go into another shape. Elastic material This is a material that will stretch and go back to normal, its original shape. Elastics behavior is the ability of a solid to regain its shape when the external forces are removed. What is Hookes Law? Hokes Law is a rule for a spring, 'For a spring-that for a helical spring or other elastic material the extension is directly proportional to the applied force provided the elastic limit is not exceeded' This means that the extension is directly proportional to its force until its elastic

• Word count: 3692
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigation based on Hooke's law.

Background Information. This investigation will be based on Hooke's law. Robert Hooke was born in 1635, he was well known for his studies of elasticity. Hooke's most important discovery is the correct formulation of the theory of elasticity. An object is said to behave elastically when equal increases in the force applied to it produce equal changes in length. If a graph is drawn to show the average extension plotted against the load in Newtons a positive straight-line gradient should be seen, as extension is directly proportional to the load. The ratio between the load and the extension gives us a constant, this constant is called the spring or force constant. Hooke's law states: F = kx k = the constant of proportionality (the spring constant). x = the spring extension (e.g. x metres) Or: The deformation of a material is proportional to the force applied to it provided the elastic limit is not exceeded. The elastic limit is when the spring is permanently stretched on deformed, so it doesn't return to its original shape, as the molecules in the metal of the spring cannot return to the original shape; as the following graph demonstrates. Elasticity can also be shown in this simple diagram: The Molecular Level Description. Before. After. Combinations of springs. Hypothesis. ) I think that the stretch of the two springs in series will be double the stretch of

• Word count: 2045
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### What is the speed of sound waves?

What is the speed of sound waves? Prediction: I predict that the speed of sound in air will be 330m/s. Method: The apparatus were sat up as below. The metal plate was held 10cm above the start microphone. It was then hit with the hammer and the time it took for the sound to travel to the stop microphone was recorded by the fast timer in microseconds. This was done twice and then the start microphone was moved to the 90cm mark on the ruler the process was repeated until the microphones were 10cm apart. However, nothing else was changed except the distance between each microphone. Result Distance between the microphones (metres) Time for Sound to travel from M1 to M2 (microseconds) 2 Average 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 3029 2996 2094 850 561 241 941 641 393 29 3023 2725 2181 2147 472 311 892 667 387 10 3026 2860.5 2137.5 998.5 516.5 276 916.5 654 390 19.5 Analysis The graph on the previous page shows the time that was recorded for certain distances. Those distances are different from the ones stated in the results table on page 1. However this will be explained later. If we look at the graph we can see how the points that were plotted lie very close to the line of best fit, with the exception of the last two circled points, and show a positive correlation. Also you can see how the line goes through the origin, which

• Word count: 1788
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### What effects displacement of a ray of light?

Investigation: What effects displacement of a ray of light? Variables * The angle the light hits the block at * The width of the block * The colour of the light * Light intensity Predictions * The larger the angle the larger the displacement. (See Diagram) In the diagram I have used snell's law to find the refracted angle, Snell's law is that for glass Sin i Sin r = 1.5 By using this I have been able to work out accurate results without doing an experiment. * The displacement will be directly proportional to the width of the block. I.e. The wider the block the larger the displacement E.g. if you double the thickness of the block then the displacement will double (See Diagram) Plan 1 The apparatus that I need for the experiment is Protractor 2 Ray Box 3 Ruler 4 Blank page 5 Glass block 6 Power Pack The measurements to be taken are: the size of the blocks : The size of the displacement 5 readings will be taken; this is because a large range of results is required to draw an accurate graph. A ruler will be used to measure the displacement and thickness and a protractor will be used to measure the angle. The experiment will be repeated twice to give a range of measurements The test will be kept fair by making sure that the controlled variables are kept the same throughout all the experiments. The main controlled variables are: Colour of light-

• Word count: 854
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Is Space Exploration Worth the Cost?

Is Space Exploration Worth the Cost? Abstract In this report I will investigate if space exploration is worth the cost of its budget. I will provide evidence for both side of argument and will include information about how satellites work. Finally I will come to a conclusion as to whether I think and space exploration is worth the cost and will evaluate all of the sources that I have used. Introduction Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space.The US spends \$18.7 billion on space exploration every year, but the big question going through many minds is "Is it really worth the cost?" I will identify reasons for and against the spending of this money on space exploration and will include examples of perceived better uses for the designated budget. Reasons for Space Exploration Being Worth the Cost: Important new technologies which advance the economy are created through space exploration. For every dollar spent on the space program, the U.S. economy receives about \$8 of economic benefit [1]. Some of these main advances in technology which shape our lives today include flat panel televisions, G.P.S, computer operations and mobile phones [2]. Space exploration has also provided technologies which save lives as well as entertain and convenient them. For example space exploration allows the prediction and management of hurricanes and

• Word count: 1507
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### What factors affect the rate at which my spring Oscillates?

Contents Contents Page 1 Brainstorm Page 2 Hypothesis Page 3 Plan: Diagram and List Of Apparatus Page 5 Method Page 6 Fair Test Page 7 Safety Page 8 Results: Table Of Results Page 9 Graph Page 10 Interpretation Page 13 Evaluation Page 14 Appendix Page 15 Brainstorm Hypothesis I think that the more weight you put on the spring, the more time it will take to make ten oscillations. To explain this I will start off at the beginning. According to Hooke's Law1 the extension is directly proportional to the force loaded onto it. The graph below shows the load and the extension. The line is straight meaning x=y or extension ? load. I think that if you doubled the weight you added to the spring then the extension of the spring will double as well2. I think that this will only happen, though, up until a certain point, because after that the spring will not revert to its original shape3. This point is called the elastic limit. The graph below shows the elastic limit of a spring. As you can see, at a certain point Hooke's law fails to work4. It starts off as E ? L until it reaches the elastic limit where the spring extends more than it would if E ? L. This is where the spring starts to stretch out of shape and will not go back to it's original state. As my investigation is into the

• Word count: 2024
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Making sense of data - finding a value for the young modulus of a flexxible strip of material.

MAKING SENSE OF DATA FINDING A VALUE FOR THE YOUNG MODULUS OF A FLEXIBLE STRIP OF MATERIAL I have picked the first method out of the three options of experiments to conduct based on the flexion of a cantilever. I now have to decide on a method of collecting and processing the data for the first method, taking care to reach a value for Young modulus with some estimate of accuracy attached to it. Method 1: Wood (metre rule) Diagram Apparatus . 2 Measuring rulers (1m each) 2. Drawing Pin 3. 9 Weights (50g each, totalling 450g) 4. Approximately 50cm of string 5. G-Clamp 6. Clamp Stand with clamp 7. Screw gauge with a sensitivity of 0.1mm (Micrometer) 8. Vernier Calipers with a sensitivity of 0.2mm The Micrometer Vernier Calipers - read the sliding scale along the top and bottom Variables The variables that will be kept constant are the length of the overhang of the ruler, the position where the ruler is clamped and the position on the ruler where the weights are hung. The only variable that will change during the experiment is the amount of weight that is hung on one end of the ruler to measure the different deflection of the ruler at different heights. The weights that are hung on one end of the ruler will vary each time by adding 50g to the previous weight and each time the deflection of the ruler is read until 450g of weights have been added. Method Arrange

• Word count: 2205
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science