Standardizing a Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Solution

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Standardizing a Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Solution


The aim of this practical is to prepare a NaOH solution, determine the Concentration of the NaOH solution accurately and precisely and calculate of unknown concentration from titration results.


(i) Concentration of solutions:

Although there are many different units of concentration, the most commonly used unit among chemists is morality (M). Molarity is defined as the number of moles of solute per 1-L of solution. The main advantage of molarity as a unit of concentration is therefore the ease with which measurements of the volume of a solution can be combined with the molarity to determine the number of moles of the solute that are present to take part in a chemical reaction.

(ii) Standardization:

The process of using a known amount of one reagent to determine the concentration of another reagent is known as standardization. This will allow the experiment to be accurate determination of the concentration of NaOH solution, which is linked to standardized can be provide accurately help the experiment. The formula reacts with the OH of sodium hydroxide in exactly the same way as HCl.

 HKC8O4H4      +     NaOH          NaKC8O4H4     +     H2O

(iii) Acid-Base Titration and End Point

Reactions between acids and bases that are dissolved in water occur almost instantaneously: they occur as fast as the two solutions can be mixed. These reactions also tend to go to completion: react until the entire limiting reagent is consumed. When exact stoichiometric amounts of acid and base have been mixed, the reaction is said to have reached the equivalence point. Essentially all of the acid has reacted with the base, and vice versa. An Indicator is used to determine when an acid has exactly neutralized a base, or vice versa. A Suitable indicator changes colours when equivalent amounts of acid and base are present. The colour change is termed the end point of the titration. (1) Lewis, R., Evans, W., 2011

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(iv) Titration

The technique of slowly adding an acid to a base or vice versa-until the reaction has reached

the equivalence point is known as titration. The key to observing the equivalence point of a titration is the use of an indicator to indicate when the equivalence point of the reaction has been reached. Indicators take many forms. The most familiar indicators are litmus and phenolphthalein. Litmus is a vegetable dye that is red in acid and blue in base. Phenolphthalein is colourless in acid and pink in base. In practice, each indicator has an endpoint-at which it ...

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