Health and social care, OCR Nationals double award promoting health and well being

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Health and Social Care

Unit 2 Promoting Health and Well-Being



This coursework will be based on unit 2, which is promoting health and well-being. I will look at understanding health and well being by including positive, negative and holistic definitions of health. Further, I will consider different aspects and cultures, which affect health. I am going to observe a client and analyse the PIES while taking health measures for him. In the end of my assessment, I would set targets for my client to improve his health and also provide leaflets and brochures and include information from experts to motivate him to stick to the plan. I will make him aware about the effects a bad lifestyle may have on him. This coursework is laid in sections as section A, B, C and D. Section A will contain definitions of health, how cultures look at health and the history of the health care sector; how it changed over time. In section B, I will look at factors affecting health and will also introduce my client while looking at the factors affecting his PIES. In section C, I will collect life style records of Mr. Jayaweera, who is my client to look at his PIES in detail and prepare health plans. Section D will look at how my plans are SMART. This will give a description about how the plans will benefit my client.

Note: The bracketed information at the end of some sentences refers to the bibliography.

E.g.: (Bib.1) refers to the first source in the bibliography “GCSE Health and Social Care for OCR. (Text book)”

Section A

Defining Health.

This section, is mainly based on understanding health and well-being.

Different people look at health in different ways. It can depend on their culture, environment, religion or age group. In order to have a clear understanding about how the people look at health, I have conducted a survey from a random sample of people who belongs to the above groups (e.g. people of different ages have been chosen).

Please refer to the survey. Appendix 1

By looking at what different people say about health, it is clear that each one look at it differently. Therefore, there are many ways to define health. When we look at health, all physical, intellectual, emotional and social aspects should be considered because they all affect our health equally. Health can be defined in many ways, positively, negatively and holistically. It depends on how the individuals look at their health and how concerned they are about it. Our state of healthiness will depend on many things such as where do we live, what job do we do, what do we eat, who are our friends and everything else related to our lifestyle. Our choice about our lifestyle can make a difference to our health. If we are interested enough in ourselves, we can improve our own health. Some people think, that it depends only on the health care we obtain; however, it doesn’t only depend on this. It is connected to our lifestyle as well.

 Firstly, looking at the positive definition of health, it is a positive concept, highlighting social and personal resources together with physical capacities. According to the World Health Organization, “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.  This definition of health has not been changed since 1948. (Bib.2) By referring to my survey, I have found that, the first person that is an adult has been successful up to a certain extent in defining health, more than the rest of the people. Therefore, it proves that their age group will affect the definition of health by different people. If a person is having a disability or disease, they have a more tendency to think that they are not healthy only because of their disability or disease despite their age group. Looking at the fourth person’s answer in my survey can prove this. As he is old and is not fit enough to do his own work, he thinks that he is not healthy. However, by looking at health positively, he should consider his emotional, social and intellectual aspects of health as well as the physical health. According to my textbook, which is the “GCSE Health and Social Care for OCR”, it is the “achievement and maintenance of physical fitness and mental stability”. Basically, it is feeling generally healthy. However, many people do not include their mental and social well-being, if they are asked to say what health is (Bib.1). This was also proved by my survey. Nevertheless, it also must be taken into account. A positive definition of health should consider every aspect of our health such as physical and mental, as said in the above definitions.

Secondly, where the negative definition of health is concerned, some people believe that health is merely the absence of illnesses, injuries or diseases. Most of them only consider the physical aspects of their health. Again according to the survey, a child defined health as the ability to do hard work and be physically active in terms of running, jumping and carrying. Therefore it is clear that this person has also considered only the physical aspects. Therefore, as said before, the different age groups could have various definitions on health. However paying an attention only on physical aspect could reflect the health in a negative way. According to my textbook, “achievement and maintenance of physical fitness and mental stability” falls into the negative definitions of health (Bib.1).

Finally, it is very important to give a holistic definition to health. In general, a holistic view means looking at something in each and every aspect taking into account everything such as physical, intellectual, emotional and social characteristics. The person will be very accurate when they define health, if they take a holistic approach to their health.



According to the above figures given in the above Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, each aspect has been given a position in order of their importance placing the most important one at the bottom. This makes it clear that everything, (regardless the level of their importance) is important to us.  There are different ways to keep up the health status up to the standard such as using medication, being on healthy diet, getting enough rest and doing appropriate exercise. In addition to that, health can be treated in holistic ways too. Some of them are as follows:

  • Counselling
  • Yoga
  • Psychotherapy
  • Massage
  • Acupuncture
  • Meditation

After having an observational research on health and its definitions, I would conclude that to keep up appropriate health we should have healthy lifestyle in terms of physical, intellectual, emotional and social aspects.  


As this unit is based on promoting health and well-being, it is highly important to have concerns on well-being as well. According to the World Health Organisation, well-being explains our happiness, confidence, physical condition and general outlook of our life. It is about caring ourselves and feeling good. Well-being and living healthily go hand-in-hand. It goes beyond eating a balanced diet and taking regular exercises. It is about being aware about our life and reducing the risks of diseases. Our daily routine could decide the state of our well-being. (Bib.4)


Great Britain is a multi cultural society. The culture is a way, which is followed by a group of people. They eat, dress, behave and believe in the same way. It may be unique to that particular group. It affects their way of life and therefore their health as well. It is very important that the health care sector and the organisations respect beliefs of each culture.

For example, a Christian faith group, Jehovah’s Witness urge their follower’s to refuse blood transfusions. (Bib.12) But according to medical science, blood transfusions can save a person’s life. In another instance, Muslims don’t take pork, although animal flesh is a good source of protein. Proteins are needed for the build up of our muscles. To work properly and to be physically fit, we need to have healthy muscles. Therefore this can affect their physical health. Sometimes, the people chose to be vegetarians or vegans either following their religion or for their personal beliefs. This can lead them to be lack of proteins, as meat, eggs and other animal products are good sources of proteins.  As said before, protein is very important even for making hormones. This is vital for our growth. Therefore where the PIES are concerned, it is clear that not taking animal products could also affect a person’s development. Further, this can lead our intellectual development to grow less as well because a good physical health is important to have a good memory and thinking.

 Another example of how different cultures consider is the fasting practise of Muslims. However, it is not good for our health to get rid of meals because it has been found that this can lead to weight loss, stomach problems including ulceration, dehydration and also changes have been observed in daily lifestyle and mental-health status. (Bib.5) Apparently, looking at our PIES it is clear from the above disorders that this can also affect both our physical and mental health. Nevertheless, as it is linked to their culture and tradition, they don’t bother much about their health. Further, covering their body by Muslim ladies could lead to vitamin D deficiency as they are not exposed enough to sunlight causing possible rickets. On the other hand, this could be positive to avoid unnecessary exposure to sunlight avoiding risks of skin cancers. So it is clear that the cultural belief and the person’s background can affect their health positively as well. Being a Buddhist, I believe it is not right taking alcohol and drugs for a healthy life. This is another example, which shows how the background of people affects their way of thinking. As different cultures and religions consider health in different ways, it is important that doctors should be aware of cultural beliefs when treating patients.

According to the beliefs and places of living of a person may cause them to have less access to medical treatments. For example, a study carried out among the people living in Southern Virginia has found out that they were lacking of medical knowledge and that they distrusted the physicians. They have claimed that most of their people were obsessed and they liked to eat much but not doing exercise. Although it wasn’t said in the study report what foods they ate, I thought that they might be eating too fatty and sugary foods, as they are some causes of obesity. Further, I got to know by reading the study, that these Virginians didn’t discuss health problems with outsiders. It is also said that this may be due to the lack of medical knowledge. I thought this might prevent them from getting suitable care.  As the people distrusted the specialist, they do not take medicines prescribed by them. They think that these drugs may cause addiction. In addition, according to the participants in the study, there is a lack of American-born physicians. At the same time, the people in the area were having some concerns in meeting foreign-born physicians. This cultural difference between the patient and the provider has been identified as a barrier, which prevents the patients getting medial care. (Bib.6) I thought this to be a good example to show the effects of cultural beliefs on people and their health. In third world countries, the people might not be in good hygienic conditions such as less purified water systems, poor housing and air pollution. This could also lead to illnesses and diseases.  

Some other examples of how different cultures look at their health are the Chinese treatments and the way some cultures treat patients using plants and herbs found from the forests.

Although people from different cultures look at health in different ways, each person’s health is alike and will be affected in the same way. Therefore, it is important that we look at it in a positive manner.

How our environment affect our Health

Our environment is a main factor that could affect our health. A person must wisely choose where to live. However, in some circumstances there is no choice for people to decide. If we are living in a place where good hygiene is lacking, we’ll get infections and diseases very easily. Our physical health will be very weak. As said before, in the ancient time, there were no much good conditions for people to live. It was lacking of good hygiene.  We will have a bad physical health due to diseases and illnesses caused by the dirty environment. Going much further, when we look at different countries, there is a big difference in the environments. For example, in developing countries, there are many diseases and lot of people have poor housing. Environment pollution can be seen greatly, in some areas where there are many factories and traffic. So these things can affect our health in a negative way. Another example is our neighbours. If a person lives in an environment with bad neighbours, which doesn’t suit him the person will be stressed easily and he’ll have less accompany with the neighbours. This will affect his emotional health and social health. Therefore, it is important that we live in a peaceful and environmental friendly place. It is important to refer to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, again. The second row of the pyramid, from the bottom talks about safety. I think this, depends mostly on our environment. For example, if we live in an area where there are lots of thieves, we might be unable to protect our belongings and ourselves. We will have to live in stress and fear. This can affect our emotional health.  

A Change in Health Care. 

In the past people were not provided with good health care. The health care system in Britain was poor and it did cost a lot of money to treat an illness. Many children died of illnesses and there weren’t any modern techniques to treat illnesses and diseases. The working class thought it as a nightmare to become ill. There was a lack of doctors. They didn’t bother to work for a less salary. Lot of fund raising had to be done in order to develop the health care sector. The number of babies dying from illnesses increased.  In 1948 July 5th, Nye Bevan established the NHS. As a citizen in the early Britain, he had experienced the problems of the health care system. Many of his siblings had died.

Further, as there was poor housing in the past, the people hadn’t been able to bear the weather. For example, in wintertime, they didn’t have heaters or better warm clothes to protect themselves. Therefore, they had to suffer badly from the weather. The people were not living in clean environments. They were lack of good hygiene. This could also lead to illnesses. The food they ate was not in a good state. They didn’t eat in a suitable place. All these factors could affect our physical development. For example, we could get skin diseases and infections due to lack of cleanliness. Maslow’s pyramid would be useful in this stage as well.


As I said before, the vital needs are placed at the bottom to show that these support the needs at the top. The bottom section contains breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis and excretion. It is clear that having poor housing and a bad environment can make us loose these things. In addition, excretion is an important part in our life processes. Not having an appropriate toilet will also reduce our hygiene. When we are not in a proper physical state, our mental health will also be weak.

As time went on, technical developments lead to an improvement in the health care sector as well. New medical equipments were invented and new medicines were produced. Further, immunisations were introduced to dangerous viruses. As a result, the people’s life expectancy increased.

1948 July 5th: Establishment of the NHS. This provided free health care for the public.

1952: Introduction of the prescription charges. The government couldn’t afford to provide everybody with free services so in 1952 prescription charges of one shilling was introduced.

  When considering as a whole, in my research, I found that the NHS has changed in two ways over time.

  1. Accessibility and Funding.
  2. Methods providing health care.

Accessibility and Funding:

A labour government passed the national health care act in 1946, which resulted in a change to the health care service. It is said that the people are capable of having free health care. It was helpful for the great change in 1948, which is the launch of the NHS. However, it had been not easy for the government to provide free health care for everybody so later some charges for prescriptions and other items have been introduced. In 1990, another act had been introduced which encouraged the hospitals and other health care establishments to become trusts and control the money they receive by the government, themselves instead of the local authorities doing it for them.

 Methods providing health care:

One example for this is the invention of antibiotics and the invention of other methods such as heart transplantation in 1968, which made a great difference in this sector. Many modern technical types of equipments were invented over time and this enabled the doctors to save many people’s lives.  Further, the baby care changed and the mothers were advised on how to care their babies, such as the way to lay them safely in order to prevent cot death.      (Bib. 1)

Section B

Factors affecting Health and Well being

In this section, I will look at the negative and positive factors affecting a person’s health and well-being.

 Some of the positive factors affecting health and well-being are:

  • Good relationships- A person must become socialised and be able to exchange ideas among his friends. They must have the approval of the other members of the society. They must have somebody to express their feelings. Good relationships make a person socialised and builds up confidence while improving both a person’s emotional and social health.
  • A good financial state- People must be capable of leading happy lives while being able to buy what they want and to enjoy life. It is very important that people to have enough money to afford any health care they need. Further, a good financial state will enable us to eat a balanced diet by allowing us to buy any food. This can improve our physical health. So a good financial state helps in that way. This too improves our social health because we’ll be more approved among the friends and the peer group. In addition, this can improve our emotional health because a rich person lives happily more than a poor one and he feels that he is complete.
  • A better job - A better job is very important because this is the way we can have a good financial state. In addition, a good job will build our confidence and self-esteem. Therefore, this is also a factor, which can develop our emotional health. If we are doing a satisfactory job, we will be able to get the acceptation of many friends. Therefore, this affects our social health as well.
  • Living in a peaceful environment- Living in a peaceful environment can make us happy and we will be able to enjoy life. Drug addictives, thieves, murderers and criminals are examples of bad neighbours. A peaceful neighbourhood allows us to live happily. This is a good factor affecting our emotional health positively. In this way, if we have peaceful and calm neighbours, we can easily develop our social health, as they will make good friends for us.
  • Balanced diet- Taking a balanced diet is very important to lead a healthy life. Our body will be able to work long hours without getting tired easily. Our diet must contain a good selection of foods containing:

Carbohydrates: this contains glucose and this is the primary source of energy for our body. We gain energy through foods, which contain glucose, (carbohydrates). (Bib.7)

Proteins: The main role of proteins is to help in the growth and repair of body cells. However, it can also be used as a source of energy.

Fats: This can also be used as a source of energy. By getting under the skin, this acts as a covering and provides us with warmth. However, containing excess fat in our body can affect us badly.

Fruits and vegetables: They come together. If we follow the five-a-day guideline, we will take five portions of fruits or vegetables a day. They provide us with necessary vitamins and minerals. There are many types of vitamins such as vitamin C, D, E and etc. Different vitamins have different functions. For example, vitamin C is important for healthy gums, vitamin A gives us good eyesight and vitamin K helps in the blood clotting. We can also get fibre through eating some vegetables. Fibre helps in our digestive system. (Bib.8)

Diary products: They are also very important. Milk, cheese and etc are diary products. They contain calcium, fats and vitamins. They too play an important role in our health.

Not having a balanced diet affects us as equally as getting a balanced diet. Some of the bad effects are, obesity (through carrying lot of body fat and too many sweets), diabetes, (taking too much foods containing glucose [carbohydrates]), cholesterol (through too many fatty foods) and heart disease. We can increase our life expectancy through maintaining a healthy and balanced diet. Therefore, our diet is playing an important role to maintain a good physical health.

  • Exercises- Together with a good diet, regular exercises also play a role in our health. This helps us to maintain a healthy life by making our muscles fit and making us active while improving our physical health. Exercise is very important for everybody. It can prevent many diseases.
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There are two types of exercises:

  1. Aerobic exercises
  2. Anaerobic exercises

Aerobic exercises set energy by using aerobic respiration. It is the release of energy with the use of oxygen and sugar. Examples of aerobic exercises are: swimming, walking, jogging and brisk walking. (Bib.10)

Anaerobic exercises are to do with anaerobic respiration, which doesn’t require oxygen but does need sugar. It releases energy with lactic acid. (Bib.11) Examples of anaerobic exercises are: sprinting, weight lifting, push-ups and pull-ups.

Exercises prevent us becoming obessed and give us a healthy and beautiful body shape. Exercises keep us fit ...

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Here's what a teacher thought of this essay


Overall this is a highly detailed report. It has a great deal of strengths demonstrating the writers knowledge and understanding of how lifestyle choices can affect health and wellbeing. It demonstrates a clear understanding of the PIES and environmental factors that affect a persons health. Negatives regarding this report are that in some sections it is very repetitive, and begins to become quite boring for the reader. ****