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transplants

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Introduction

TRANSPLANTS A transplant is an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient). What organs have been successful transplanted since 1950’s? 1. Kidney by Joseph Murray in Boston, U.S.A. [1954]. 2. Pancreas by Richard Lillehei and William Kelly in Minnesota, U.S.A. [1966]. 3. Liver by Thomas Starzl in Denver, U.S.A. [1967]. 4. Heart by Christiaan Barnard in Cape Town, South Africa. [1967]. 5. Monkey head transplant by Robert White in Cleveland, U.S.A. [1970]. 6. Heart or lung by Bruce Reitz in Stanford, U.S.A. [1981]. 7. Lung lobe by Joel Cooper in Toronto, Canada. [1983]. 8. Double- lung by Joel Cooper in Toronto, Canada. [1986]. 9. Whole lung by Joel Cooper in St. Louis, U.S.A. [1987]. 10. Laparoscopic live-donor nephrectomy by Lloyd Rartner and Louis 11. Kavoussi in Baltimore, U.S.A. [1995]. 12. Live-donor partial pancreas by David Sutherland in Minnesota, U.S.A in the year. [1998]. 13. Hand in France. [1998]. 14. Partial face transplant in France. [2005]. 15. Penis transplant in China. [2006]. 16. Jaw (to combine donor jaw with bone marrow form the patient) by Eric 17. M Genden in Mount Sinai Hospital, New York. [2006]. 18. Full double arm by Edgar Biemer, Christoph Höhnke and Manfred Stangl in Technical University of Munich, Germany. [2008]. 19. Baby born from transplanted ovary. [2008]. 20. Human windpipe using a patient’s own stem cells by Paolo Macchiarini in Barcelona, Spain. ...read more.

Middle

After this, Doctors tried to find ways of ?tricking? the body into not rejecting the transplanted new, healthy organ. The first way was by bombarding the patient with X-rays, but this lead to the death of many patients. Doctors then discovered that drugs, such as cyclosporine could be used to suppress the immune system. The above development of ideas and techniques led to today?s transplant success. (www.discoveriesinmedicine.com ) 1) Trends by number of donors The graph shows that the number of donors is staying at a similar figure from1995 to 2004 i.e. there isn?t much difference between the numbers of donors each year. The estimated mean of the number of donors between the years 1995 and 2004 is seven hundred and eighty eight [788]. There is a difference of one hundred and sixty-five [165] between the years 1996 and 2003, this shows the decrease in the number of donors in eight years. It can also be seen that as the number of donors increases, the number of transplants also increases. 2) Trends number of people receiving transplants The graph shows that the number of people receiving transplants is staying the same. As the number of people receiving transplants increases the number of people on the waiting list decreases. 3) Trends number people on transplant list The graph shows that the number of people needing transplants is increasing each year. The number of people needing transplants each year exceeds both the number of donors and the number of people receiving transplants. ...read more.

Conclusion

What are the advantages of using animals as organ donors for humans? 1. Animals are readily available, this means that the rate of people on the transplant list will decrease. 2. It will save the government money. 3. Easily make up for shortage. 4. This could mean saving for NHS, more taxes to help pay for more research. 5. No social damages as you know your relatives/friends organs are in someone else?s body. (www.yahoo.com) What are the disadvantages of using animals as organ donors for humans? 1. There is a small possibility that there could be a transfer of pig or primates diseases with the transplant to the human which could seriously harm the patient and could even cause a large epidemic 2. Animals have rights. Many believe that animals too have rights, just like humans, and therefore have the right to live without fear of murder and not be killed of the purpose of helping humans by providing organs for transplants and therefore we should not exploit the animals for our benefit. 3. Scientists are ?playing God? by genetically modifying the animals, and as said with argument on GM crops, we have yet to know what affect this will have on the environment and future generations. (www.yahoo.com) In my opinion, I think humans should not use other animals for organ transplant because some animals will be endangered and may later become extinct. Moreover humans could also be at risk because animal diseases could spread to humans because certain viruses could be introduced into the recipient?s body. ...read more.

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