The tiny sooty particles in London's air are believed to cause asthma, cardiovascular problems, lung cancer and premature death. The negative externalities of consumption produced here make the marginal social benefits in each case less than the marginal private benefits. The marginal social benefit is equal to the marginal private benefits plus the external benefits. If these goods are being over-consuming, then for some of those goods, the overall cost to society is greater than the benefit received . The graph below shows the effect of a negative externality of consumption. According to the article, people who drive cars enjoy the private benefits of the cars, but this will create external costs for other people.
Economics is a social science which studies how resources are utilised and the production, consumption and transfer of wealth. It looks at how human decision-making affects the relative prosperity of nations and societies and the factors which inform these decisions. As a social science, it relies on scientific methodology, analysis and the fact that it underpins economies makes it relevant on a daily basis. Indeed you will be encouraged to keep a keen eye on the news as many of the theories and topics you will be studying will be exemplified on a regular basis.
The IB course will cover macro-economics: those theories which deal with the economies of countries and the economic decisions of governments. It also covers microeconomics which looks at the variables which affect companies, individuals and markets. Other topics you'll cover are development economics and international economics and a global perspective is a key element of the course.
There are three examinations requiring a variety of techniques including essay writing. Marked by Teachers can help you gain the key skill of writingextended answers with their impressive collection of IB Economics essay examples. There is also internal assessment, which requires a portfolio of commentaries based on topical economic news items.
Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.
Do they use key words from the title or question?
Do they answer the question directly?
Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
"For this essay, I have only compared two policies of structural unemployment as it would not be equal to compare a policy for a type of unemployment (i.e. frictional) then another policy to help another type of unemployment (to seasonal) as the policies are dependent on their respective types. Therefore in conclusion, I think that although the first policy of skills training has its drawbacks, like being effective only in the long run, it does have great benefits in solving structural unemployment, and it does outweigh the second policy, as the negative effects the second policy might have on its people is higher, therefore I think the first policy is a more permanent solution to reducing unemployment."
"In conclusion , we have to accept that graduation tax will be a very smart move if applied as it is going to help the government , the students and also the universities to pass this big economic crisis .During this essay we saw politicians , academics ans also people who represent the students who agreed about this measure and find it really positive and there were also groups such as the Institute of Directors which stated that the negative impact is bigger than the positives .It was also reported from the president of NUS that students will only accept this measure only , if some other changed will take place , such as public funding .
"In conclusion, the statement that claims that a perfect competition is more efficient than a monopoly is true. Perfect competition satisfies both methods of measuring efficiency, whereas a monopoly satisfies none, when profit maximizing. In a perfect competition, the consumer and producer surpluses are maximized, meaning Pareto optimality is achieved. Additionally, the lower prices of goods, means that the consumer has more disposable income to buy other goods, yielding a positive externality to third parties. This also aids economic growth. A monopoly often loses incentive to invest in their goods and products due to them being the sole seller of their good. This stalls advancements in technology, and means the PPC does not shift further outwards, stunting economic growth."
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