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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. The rise of Hitler

    Apart from inter-party issues, the Weimar faced two major crises between 1919 and 1923. One was the collapse of the mark, leading to extreme hyperinflation in Germany. Revolution was also a large threat to the republic. Several attempts were made by the communists to overthrow the government as they felt that the time was ripe for a communist take over in similar situation as their brothers in Russia which resulted in the Spartacus Revolt in 1919 and the communist revolt in Bavaria. There were also two Putsches from the right, the Kapp Putsch in 1920 which had to be suppressed otherwise the US would withhold their support, and the Munich Putsch by ultra right

    • Word count: 1968
  2. Lenin's Role in Creation of USSR

    In early 1917, Lenin was in exile in Switzerland, because of revolutionary activities. As soon as he heard of the February Revolution and the removal of the Tsar, Lenin tried to get back to Russia as soon as possible. Eventually the Germans agreed to transport Lenin back to Russia, as they hoped that his revolutionary activity might undermine the Russians ability to continue fighting in the First World War. Soon after Lenin arrived in Russia, he announced his famous April thesis. The main points of this thesis were not to support the Provisional Government, to let the Soviets (worker committees)

    • Word count: 1420
  3. Assess the view that Khrushchevs policies were a failure both at home and abroad between 1955 and 1963.

    However, Khrushchev was unable to maintain Soviet dominance over the United States as a superpower due to the changing face of world politics which ultimately affected the decision-making concerning the entire Soviet Union in relation to three areas: itself, the United States, and other foreign powers. His policies, although certainly accelerating the decay of Soviet relations with the West, were aimed at maintaining at least an unsteady peace and surely cannot be considered a complete failure. In maintaining the superpower status of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev deemed the cohesion of the satellite states one of the biggest priorities of his domestic policy, if not the biggest.

    • Word count: 1992
  4. Cold War and middle East

    These conflicting ideologies were the basis for the mistrust, disdain, and competition that was the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union represent two opposing systems of government. In the United States, the government is elected by free elections. The people can form political parties to voice their political opinions. They also possess the right of assembly, of speech and of the press. In the Soviet Union, the government is formed by the Communist Party. The people do not have the right to form their own political parties. They do not enjoy the right of assembly, of speech and of the press.

    • Word count: 1181
  5. status of women

    It was recognized very early in the Bolshevik Revolution that women's status had to be raised not only socially, but politically and economically also. In 1919, the women's department of the Bolshevik party under Lenin was founded, namely, the Zhenotdel. Lenin and his party went to new heights concerning the liberation of women. This included that women were not forced to live with their husbands and in 1920 the divorce laws were simplified along with the legalization of Abortion. Women were being recruited by the Zhenotdel to be involved in politics by getting involved with issues not only in the rural areas but factories also.

    • Word count: 1151
  6. The Civil War was not inevitable; it was the result of extremism and failures of leadership on both sides Discuss.

    By the early 1800s, Northern factories were producing many of those same goods as the South. Furthermore, Northern politicians were able to pass heavy taxes on imported goods from Europe so that Southerners would have to buy goods from the North. The North's political fallacy of passing taxes angered Southerners and caused them to view the North more as a competitor than a partner. When western territories were won by the US from the Mexican American War, complications arose at the question of which were free and slave states. During the early 19th century, the South sought to defend slavery by retaining control of the federal government.

    • Word count: 1498
  7. Access the successes and failures of Mussolini(TM)s Domestic and Economic policies

    Italy, while the girls were expected to become excellent mothers who would provide Italy with a population that was befitting a dominant country. Children were taught at school that the great days of modern Italy started in 1922 with the March on Rome. Children were taught that Mussolini was the only man who could lead Italy back to greatness. Boys from a young age took part in semi-military exercises; they would march and use imitation guns. Boys who were part of the Balilla (a semi-military youth organisation)

    • Word count: 1513
  8. compromises US constitution

    Some of these points at issue were how much power to allow the central government, how many representatives in Congress to allow each state, and how these representatives should be elected (directly by the people or by the state legislators). When it was put forth for the states to ratify it, still many worried that without further restraint a central government would become tyrannical. In order to solve that problem, a Bill of Rights was added in order to state the rights of people.

    • Word count: 1006
  9. The causes of the second world war

    Historians such as Henry Kissinger called the treaty a "brittle compromise agreement between American utopianism and European paranoia" and AJP Taylor suggested that the Treaty of Versailles was crushing, vindictive and lacked moral validity. This resentment felt in Germany also provided extremist political groups an opportunity to win support, which made it easier for Hitler to gain power, because the German people wanted someone that claimed that they would make these terms be revoked. It is also argued that the Great World Depression in 1929 was a very important cause of war.

    • Word count: 1399
  10. What were the causes of the French Revolution?

    Moreover the kings' wife Marie-Antoinette was more like King Louis. The queen did not care about political issues or about the people of France. When told that there was a bread shortage in France the Queen simply replied "If they have no bread, let them eat cake!". The queen also spent most of her time in her palace "le petit Trianon" where she enjoyed dressing up as a peasant. This shows that the king and queen were socially and politically incompetent which made them one of the reasons for the outbreak of the French revolution.

    • Word count: 1813
  11. Why did the second World War Breakout in 1939

    Germany and the Soviet Union was revisionist, the two powers were trying to revive their armies and their countries. The settlements in Central and Eastern Europe both tried to stop the resurgence of these two powers, however the settlements failed. Another factor in the treaty of Versailles which caused the breakout of the Second World War was the Nazi-Soviet pact of August 23, 1939, the Nazi-Soviet pact carved up Poland between the two powers, Germany and Russia, on the eve of the Second World War. There are however arguments against the Treaty of Versailles being the key cause of the Second World War.

    • Word count: 1386
  12. The Second World War was brought about by the foreign policy of Hitler and Nazi Germany. Do you agree with this statement?

    These features were all linked together and led to each other. The failure of international organizations and treaties were consequential to the breakout of the WW2. Although of some period of peace were present since the end of the previous war, the initiatives to achieve permanent peace had ruined. Disarmament, which was both a term of Treaty of Versailles and a role League of Nations was aimed to achieve, was deliberately neglected by its own members and failed to protect the nations from the rising tension of war.

    • Word count: 1349
  13. Stating which country you feel suffered most from the depression.

    By July 1932 average share prices had fallen to just 1/8 of the peak September price. In other word, $8 invested in 1929 was worth just $1 by 1932. Moreover between 1929 and 1932, 25,000 American companies went bankrupt and industrial production dropped by 50 per cent. In detail, over 5000 banks collapsed because companies and individuals could not afford to pay their loans. Therefore this consequence suggests that the economy boom was based on shaky foundation and it led USA into more than 10-year recession. Furthermore not only in aspect of Economy, it miserably affected lives of Americans.

    • Word count: 1003
  14. Comparing the Causes of the French and Russian Revolutions

    As food prices started to rise, the peasants moved to factories where an average worker worked for about eleven to twelve hours a day, lived in a tiny room and ate cabbage soup in a common bowl shared by fifteen other men. This brought stress, hunger and even child labor among the lower class (Oxley 48). France wasn't doing any better. France fought alongside America in the war against the British during the American Revolution. Although it was successful, the war sent France into bankruptcy as a huge amount of money was required for the troops' transport back and forth to America as well as weapons and food (Beck 219).

    • Word count: 1441
  15. Castro's Cuba

    A major problem in the eyes of the Cubans was the governments reliance on the US for its trade and political support. Fidel Castro, along with many others such as Rafael Garcia Barcena and Eduardo Chibas, wanted to get rid of President Batista due to the regime that he had in place throughout the years that he was in power in Cuba. Castro was part of a small group inside the 'Ortodoxos' who saw fighting against Batista's regime as the only way to remove him from power -- fighting fire with fire as it were.

    • Word count: 1700
  16. Language as a Tool for Human Evolution

    Language is one of our only ways of sharing the knowledge and information that we come across. Though some people claim that they think in pictures, colours or shapes, as opposed to with words, it is language as we conventionally recognize it, with sentence structure, words and standard grammar that allows us to explain a concept or idea to another person. Without language to allow us to explain our discoveries and understanding of new ideas to each other, much of the knowledge gained on a daily basis would be lost, and society would not evolve as much.

    • Word count: 1349
  17. Assess the methods used by Hitler to maintain his regime

    Hitler used this opportunity to have many political enemies, in particular Communists and Socialists, arrested and sent to concentration camps. The next day, on the 28th of February Hitler released the Decree for the Protection of People and State. This decree gave further rights of arrest and search to the police, in particular the SA. With there now being far less political enemies in the Reichstag, Hitler had enough seats in the parliament to pass the Enabling Law on the 23rd of March, which gave him full power of the Reichstag and liberty to enforce any decision that he wanted to make.

    • Word count: 1391
  18. Counterculture - What caused the protests of Hell No We Wont Go?

    One of the first major demonstrations was actually referred to as a teach-in. The teach-in was held at the University of Michigan in 1965 and was conducted by both faculty and students whose goal was to present the case for America withdrawing from Vietnam. This event was the catalyst for other similar events across the country. Other groups that began to believe that America's involvement in the War was wrong included church, labor, civil rights, and even congressional leaders. Their premise was that the war was destructive to the national well-being and morally wrong.

    • Word count: 1554
  19. American Response to the Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Terror flooded the minds of some, who could not help but wonder if this new technology would eventually be used to annihilate the world. This fear of the unknown, of not knowing what we had gotten ourselves in to, lurked in the minds of many Americans. Feelings were also mixed as to whether these bombings should be considered an achievement or a malicious, unnecessary attack (May) Propaganda was released and statements were issued by government and military officials, in attempts to convince American citizens that the bombing was necessary.

    • Word count: 1281
  20. America and the First Gulf War

    According to documents from the white house which were classified at the time, the U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf were vital to national security. Primary interests were access to oil and the security and stability of other "key friendly states" in the Gulf region. In August of 1990, four principals were determined to guide U.S. policy; (1) the immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait, (2) the restoration of Kuwait's legitimate government to replace the puppet regime installed by Iraq, (3)

    • Word count: 1197
  21. An unnatural alliance that was about to fall apart after the defeat of the common enemy(TM). To what extent does this explain the origin of the cold war?

    As the US came to Normandy from the sea, the Russians headed to Normandy from land (although quite late), which obviously gave pressure to the Germans. While War was still going on, 'Yalta Conference' took place in Yalta from 4th February 1945 to 11th February 1945 between the leaders of England (Winston Churchill), USA (Franklin D. Roosevelt) and the Soviet Union (Joseph Stalin). The purpose of the conference was to discuss about the aftermath of Germany and other nations, since they predicted that Germany would soon surrender.

    • Word count: 1690
  22. Capitol Punishment

    Capital punishment appeals to almost all of the general public at a high of sixty- five percent (Brant and Thomas 40). However, many of the people who argue to keep capital punishment do not know how much it really costs them on their tax dollars, and most Americans do not have the money to spend on executing criminals. In the United States thirty-eight of the fifty states have the death penalty. Over 3,000 men and women are currently on death row, and over one-third of that number reside in California, Florida, or Texas.

    • Word count: 1000
  23. Nazi Concentration Camps

    Those who were against Hitler were "concentrated" in camps (van der Rol and Verhoeven 94). The enemies of the Nazi government were brought to the camps in hopes of tolerating the principles of Nazism and being devoted to their government. Often, the SS commanders would use the term "education camps" in letters they would send to one another. This term was used by the SS commanders because according to them these camps were used for educational purposes only. At the very start of these camps there were 20,000 prisoners and by the time they ended there were 975,000 prisoners.

    • Word count: 1373
  24. The Bermuda Crew

    The resource wealth was so great that great slabs of Bermuda limestone could be used to stabilize the boat under the great strength of the ocean waves. Cedar trees were abundant and excellent for building the ship's hulls. Barrels of wax were excellent for making the ship more waterproof by sealing its seams. Some of the Jamestown settlers were unintelligent enough to look for gold when there was none while when the Bermuda crew looked for resources there was a vast amount. The amount of those that had survived in Jamestown was extremely different as compared to the Bermuda crew.

    • Word count: 1581

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