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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Bismarck's policies. While when he was Chancellor, Bismarcks main aim will have been to maintain a strong German Empire, eradicating certain opponents within the Empire and keeping peace in Europe. These aims are reflected in his policies between

    Bismarck's intentions of making Prussia the single most dominant German state are evident in the German Confederation of 1867. The confederation united the 22 states, which had helped Prussia defeat Austria. Although the states kept their main governments their military forces were now controlled by the federal government, which meant that Prussia gained more influence, as the executive power was the King of Prussia and the federal Chancellor was Bismarck. Therefore Prussia basically controlled the military forces of the other states and the Confederation was a success because Prussia's power grew and Austria was completely eliminated from Germany.

    • Word count: 2456
  2. To what extent was President Lyndon B. Johnson responsible for the escalation of the war in Vietnam? (1963-1969)

    combat units which meant that the South Vietnamese would be responsible for fighting.3 - 22ndNovember 1963: Kennedy was assassinated. Lyndon Johnson takes over presidency. .4 - Johnson was especially uncertain about his presidency because he had realized his life long dream not through his own efforts to gain support of the American people but trough the murder of his president. 5 - Johnson pledged that he was "not going to be the president who saw Southeast Asia go the way China went"6. - He became the chief advocate of the US air force, pushing a 70-group air force of 12,441 planes, centering his offensive campaign on air raids, which suggested that he was entirely open to the prospect of going to war.

    • Word count: 2980
  3. To what extent was Mussolinis transition from Socialist to Fascist a result of his desire for power?

    Syndicalist influence was recognizable in his subscription to violent revolutionary principles, collective psychology, and his conviction that a strong leader was necessary to incite revolutionary fervor in the masses.4 In 1908/9 Mussolini moved to Trentino, where he became involved with Cesare Battisti, nationalistic leader of the local Socialist Party.5 Influenced by Battisti's 'love the fatherland' ideology, Mussolini recognized nationalism's potential to inspire revolution and mass mobilization.6 In 1911 war erupted with Turkey;7 Mussolini, jailed for several violent 'pro-pacifism' demonstrations, gained distinction as an anti-war hero in Socialist circles.8 During this period, aspiring to reach national leadership within the Party, Mussolini

    • Word count: 2536
  4. Why Did War Time Friends Become Cold War Enemies?

    Others agree that the USA was to take the blame. Such historians support their view by stating that Soviet actions were merely defensive; that the USA wanted to control its area of influence, but refused to allow the Soviet Union to do the same. Finally, there is also the view that neither of the superpowers was to be blamed; that the Cold War was based on misunderstanding, a fore beyond the control of both sides. As we will see, the actual events that led to the development of the Cold War can be considered to agree with the three views, to a certain extent.

    • Word count: 2026
  5. IB Extended Essay - How where the Conquistadors able to defeat the Incan and Aztec Empires?

    The pandemic is often believed to have originated from China, and from there spread throughout Europe. The disease reached Spain by rats carrying the disease on merchant ships that traveled across the Mediterranean Sea by 1348. The disease causes swollen lymph nodes which mean "buboes" in Greek, hence the bubonic plague, and if infected one had less than a fifty percent chance to live. The plague was so tragic that it is believed to have wiped out up to possibly even half of Europe's total population, which was the most developed and populated continent on earth.

    • Word count: 2291
  6. The Causes and Effects of Chinese-Japanese conflicts in the 1930s

    For example, "Shina" is the word Japanese used to call China before and during World War II. It was seen as an insult because Japanese explained the word as "slave". As the use of "Shina" was spread day by day, the atmosphere in the two countries changed. Also on 18 September 1931, a small number of Japanese and Chinese soldiers clashed outside of Fengtien (Mukden) in southern Manchuria- an event which soon developed into what was to be a long, drawn-out, intermittent war between China and Japan.

    • Word count: 2139
  7. Was the Russian Revolution due more to tsars inadequacy as a ruler of the people or the political ideas of radical groups becoming more appealing to the people?

    An analysis of the findings will indicate the defining cause of the Russsian Revolution such as the February Revolution or the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) and its effects. The method of investigation would be to use history books to find quotes from speeches of radical groups, and events that have occurred in history. B. Summary of Evidence Russo- Japanese War The Russo- Japanese War, 1904-05, was a war between Russia and Japan because both countries wanted to control Manchuria and Korea.

    • Word count: 2490
  8. Can the period between 1924-1929 really be called the Golden period for the Weimar Republic?

    Moreover, many historians saw the republic as one of "the most democratic constitutions in the world." Both men and women over 20 were allowed to vote, something not even Britain, a leading superpower, had at that time. Without the repeated attacks, the Weimar Republic was then able to concentrate on larger economic issues rising like hyperinflation and reparation payments. In November 1923, Stresemann resigned from Chancellorship and instead took the position of the Foreign Minister of Germany. At this moment of time, hyperinflation was a growing issue and the government printing extra money was only worsening the situation.

    • Word count: 2619
  9. To what extend does the number of deaths and debt during the construction of the Panama Canal out weights the profit and practicality that it provided during the 1900s?

    (Sass, 140) The navy sent the USS Oregon, which was stationed in San Francisco, to replace it. It took 67 days for the boat to reach its destination, and event though it was on time, the US government believed that it could have been done in three weeks if they could just cross over Central America. (Omar, 54)President Roosevelt sees more potential in building a canal in Panama, so he convinces congress to support a $40 million purchase for a canal in Panama rather than Nicaragua, and the acquisition of land to serve as a canal zone.

    • Word count: 2390
  10. US History. How did the activity of Boss Tweed influence the way the federal government regulated municipal politics?

    Summary of Evidence The Role of Federal Government over New York Before Tweed * In the 1800's New York had an influx of immigration from Eastern Europe (Calhoun 63). * In 1834, New York City received the right to select its own mayor (Lankevich 91). * There was an increasing demand for public services such as sewage systems, transportation systems, and police departments (Lankevich 91). * Alliances emerged between city officials and businessmen (Lankevich 91). * Immigrant voters often supported bosses in order to obtain services unusually provided by government agencies (Lankevich 91).

    • Word count: 2298
  11. To what extent, if any, did the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster contribute to the fall of the Soviet Union?

    dominated many aspects of society, such as the appointments of government officials as well as economic enterprises.2 However, by the early 1980s, central control of the economy under Party officials led to a drop in the standard of living and a deteriorating economy.3 After years of inefficiency and corruption, shortages of many types of goods and supplies began to appear and plague the country. Party officials became wealthier, and few relief efforts were executed to reconstruct the system where only a select few were granted administrative positions through the approval of the Communist Party.4 Newly-appointed General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev sought to reform this nomenklatura system and the Soviet economy.

    • Word count: 2499
  12. The purpose of this report is to investigate how the apartheid system was created and what it meant to the people in South Africa. I will also analyze how this has affected todays society in South Africa

    1.4 Limitations In my essay I have decided not to explain the rules of the apartheid system in detail because I do not find it important for the aim of the investigation. I also have only written about one attack, the Sharpeville-massacre, and that is because naming more would only cause confusion. 2 South Africa South Africa is a country going through many changes. They are swiftly developing their economy and exports and they work hard to improve the situation for their citizens.

    • Word count: 2479
  13. What was the Effect of Nationalism on World War I?

    One factor that led to World War I was the unification of Germany and how that later rose complications within the balance of power in central Europe. Firstly, Germany was broken up into several different states, as was Italy. This allowed for foreign intervention, conquests, and wars in both countries - and nationalism was thrived within all of the states. On the eighteenth of January, 1871, both Italy and Germany unified their states. This was a cause of turmoil as the unification of these nations, particularly Germany, greatly disturbed the balance of power in central Europe - replacing dozens of small states into large, unified and aggressive countries.

    • Word count: 2045
  14. I.B Internal Assessment- History- Assess the aims and impact of the Black Panthers between 1966 and the 1970s.

    Stepping away from their violent history, the Black Panther Party had turned into a group of people that supported and fought for black rights3. The 10 point program was created in order for the oppressors to realize the aims of the party and what the Party stands for4. In addition the Party aimed to end police brutality and allow blacks the right to self-defence5. 2. End white dominance in a social environment The Black Panther Party aimed for the equality between all types of races, genders and sexes; particularly between the superior white race and the inferior black race6.

    • Word count: 2077
  15. To what extent and in what ways did Elvis influence American pop culture?

    His beautiful voice and his dominant stage presence changed the music industry forever, and created a newfound pop culture in American society. He "pushed and challenged American way of living and social boundaries"2. Elvis did just that by integrating black music into white America. His music was mostly influenced by what was considered African American music, like R&B and gospel, and he would "publicly site his debt to blacks even in the times of segregation"3. He opened the doors of "black" music into the white world, because he was able to introduce this style of music to a larger population, since he was a white male4.

    • Word count: 2325
  16. The Grand Bazaar is the public place of the Istanbul and even all the country since 400 years. It existed with the conquest of the Istanbul and witnessed all the changes that occurred in the city, in the country.

    Even there are some legends about that Grand Bazaar were exists since Byzantine Empire, we don't have enough records to prove this idea. We don't even know whether Byzantines have this type of covered bazaars, trade centers. We also don't know what was in this place before the bazaar. So, according to accurate historical records Grand Bazaar had built in 1641 with the order of Fatih the Conqueror. After the conquest of the Istanbul, Fatih gave the order of building mosques, baths, bazaars to turkicize and islamicise Constantinople, to adjust the city to Ottoman culture.

    • Word count: 2162
  17. Revision notes - Causes of the French Revolution and the Development of the Revolution and the consequences of the Revolution.

    Causes of the French Revolution: Long-term causes Age Enlightenment With the growth of the bourgeoisie and the professional class a far reaching changes were taking place in the realm of ideas by the turn of the 18th century. As the economy was shifting from agriculture to trade and industry or to the capitalist mode of production, the traditional social set up of feudal period came under sharp question from the bourgeoisie, the class involved in generation of huge wealth. They needed a different social and political structure that would provide this class with much more political and social power.

    • Word count: 2984
  18. The League of Nations - Although the League of Nations had several successes, it is considered to be a complete failure because it was a kind of an organization which was created for the benefits of its leader nations, it enforced the provisions of the Tr

    [1] The League of Nations was the older equivalent of today's United Nations. The League was established right after the Paris Peace Conference. It was the idea of the idealistic leader of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, and his initial aim was to prevent future wars and secure the peace in Europe and in the world. This notion was new to Europeans as they believed fighting was indispensable outgrowth of international relations. [2] The League of Nations would include all independent states in which even the smallest would have a voice. [3] This statement meant that all the countries would be equal in the League.

    • Word count: 2284
  19. American Neutrality During World War II and Its Subsequent Involvement in Europe and Asia

    With conflict raging in Europe, President Franklin D. Roosevelt tried to stay as neutral as possible regarding the war in Europe. The first act stated, "The President, by proclamation, shall definitely enumerate the arms, ammunition, or implements of war, the export of which is prohibited by this Act."1 It also stated, "The President is hereby authorized to proclaim upon recommendation of the Board from time to time a list of articles which shall be considered arms, ammunition, and implements of war for the purposes of this section."2 This was the first attempt by the United States to maintain a neutral standpoint regarding the war in Europe.

    • Word count: 2505
  20. Historical Investigation: To what extent did the Taiwanese population benefit from Japans agricultural developments during the Japanese colonial period, 1895~1945?

    This will become the basis of the conclusion, which is that the Taiwanese only truly benefited from Japanese economic reforms after the Japanese Colonial Period, 1895~1945. B. Summary of evidence 1. In 1895 Taiwan's economy was fragmented because transportation, communication and currency were disorganized. Practically all of Taiwan's "factors of production in 1895 were engaged in subsistence agriculture", and the economy was backward.1 2. Taiwan's economy was virtually agriculture-based.2 Thus, economic and agricultural reforms could be used synonymously The Japanese initiated agricultural reforms in Taiwan in their aim to produce cheap materials Japan needed for modernization. These reforms include: i.

    • Word count: 2897
  21. To What Extent Did The Failure of the January 1966 Coup Lead to the Outbreak of the Nigerian Civil War?

    SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS TENSIONS At independence, Nigeria had been divided into three regions- the Northern Region which was populated by mainly those from the Hausa-Fulani tribe, the Eastern Region, consisting mostly of those from the Igbo tribe and the Western Region which consisted mostly of the Yoruba tribe1. Each region had its own government but they felt that the central government in Lagos did not safeguard their interests enough2. The Prime Minister, Tafawa Balewa came from the Muslim north and the Yorubas and the Igbos complained of northern domination due to the fact that the Northern Region was the most populated region in Nigeria3.

    • Word count: 2401
  22. Women During the Period of Crusades. Crusades were expeditions as well as being holy wars; as a result women did at hand take the cross and joined the crusades, regardless of those who lectured about women to send money to fund the troops instead of arri

    As this was a pilgrimage they understood that it was mostly significant that the men should not be sidetracked from their spiritual principle; they should to spend their moments in prayer, but if women were with the military, the men would be more prone to waste their time in bed, as a result God's anger will cause them to fail the war. In the Middle Ages, women who generally went along with the armies were camp followers, nevertheless a crusade was a holy war and the award for involvement during the wars was remission of all consequences for sin.

    • Word count: 2964
  23. WW2 historical investigation. To assess the degree to which intelligence lead to the victory in the Atlantic, the investigation focuses on the Ultras role in the Battle of the Atlantic, and the events leading to the elimination of the U-boat peril.

    Summary of evidence In 1939 Germany were by far not able to finalize plan Z, which imposed the total German fleet strength required to defeat the British.1 Realizing that their fleet was disadvantageous, Germany gave U-boats the highest priority enabling them to fight a tonnage war. 2 Karl D´┐Żnitz, the German U-boat commander, calculated that 300 U-boats would be needed to cut Britain's supply lines and put them out of war. 3 The total amount of U-boats to Germany when ware broke out was 56 Williamson 4 .To protect their merchant ships from U-boats the allied introduced the convoy system5.

    • Word count: 2440
  24. Operation Barbarossa was the leading military operation in World War II, yet it failed in its aim to overthrow the Soviet Union, and led to the rout of the Axis powers. The plan of this investigation is to clarify the extent to which the wars outcome d

    The Russians lost approximately 400,000 men in the war, with Finnish troops suffering losses of around 26,6004. The amount of Soviet troops that froze to fatality in the Winter War is unidentified, but around 10,000 were evacuated due to frostbite5. Hitler began preparation for Operation Barbarossa in December 1940, during the first month of the Winter War. He wanted to instigate the operation on 15th May 19416, however it was pushed back by five weeks. The Germans were in no hurry since they assumed that they could win in with no trouble, and foreign military opinion agreed with them7.

    • Word count: 2441
  25. Stalin's rise to power, his policies and how he consolidated his grip on power.

    * Trotsky's political days were over and thus Stalin's biggest threat to his political power was defeated. 2. The second stage was the disposal of Kamenev and Zinoviev, occurring in 1925 and 1927. * Stalin was not one to share power for long and he aligned himself with the most obvious 'rightist' elements within the party, including Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky. * The party conference of 1927 gave its approval to 'socialism in one country' and denounced 'permanent revolution'. * Trotsky was expelled from the Politburo, along with Kamenev and Zinoviev.

    • Word count: 2441

"The function of the historian is neither to love the past nor to emancipate himself from the past, but to master and understand it as the key to the understanding of the present."
E. H. Carr

If you love scouring the text of a dusty old book to get a glimpse of the author's life, then you should consider choosing history as one of your International Baccalaureate (IB) subjects. History is one of ten subjects in group 3 of the diploma programme, and it offers students a solid grounding in medieval or modern history, interpreted through the lens of world history.

If you plunge into this course without good essay-writing skills to guide you, you could quickly find yourself adrift. Prepare yourself by studying Marked by Teachers' collection of IB history papers. Study the marked examples to gain insight into what makes a great essay; you'll soon be editing your own papers with a teacher's critical eye.

Higher Level (HL) history is known for its rigour, so if you do well, and your overall marks are good too, you'll end up with a wide range of historical, philosophical and social studies university courses to choose from.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was socialism better in dealing with social, economical and political problems in the USSR than democracy was in the United States

    "In conclusion socialism to a large extent was a more successful ideology in the USSR politically since it established a strong socialist state, socially since it abolished all ranks in society and economically because it industrialized the nation. To a small extent democracy in the USA was more successful since there were rights and freedom for the citizens and it economically based on a supply and demand theory."

  • To what extent was the Spanish American War of 1898 a turning point in the emergence of the United States as a world power?

    "To conclude, with the acquisition of the Philippines, just off the coast of China, and of Hawaii and Guam, the USA had now stepping stones which gave it an advantageous position to access the Asian market. Also, the USA had control over Cuba which gave it control over the sugar and tobacco industries and most of the Cuban business. Also, having Cuba and Puerto Rico under control asserted some of the USA's influence and authority in the Caribbean. Also, the change in the US's view of world affairs lead to the construction of the Panama Canal which was essential for USA's trading because it joined the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and it avoided the long and adventurous route around Cape Horn. Many other conquests and takeovers took place following the Spanish-American War, which asserted the power the USA all over the world. So, the Spanish-American War of 1898 marked the change in America's non-involvement policy and interest in world affairs, and, consequently, marked its emergence as a major world power."

  • To what extent was the rise to power of Mao due to personal appeal and ability?

    "In conclusion, it was Mao Zedong's personal appeal which won him a lot of support in the political sphere. By being extensively involved in Party Affairs, Mao was able to showcase his tremendous leadership capabilities. Furthermore, Mao's guerilla tactics not only had a big hand in weakening the Kuomintang's forces but they also won support from the majority Peasant population on which he applied his Sino-Marxist ideals to create a Peasant Run Proletariat. The overwhelming amount of support for Mao generated through the Proletariat and the manipulation of the major tactical flaws of the Kuomintang prevented them to take any further action against the Party. Mao Zedong then went on to become the first chairman of the Communist Party of China in 1943, which was followed by him being named the President of the People's Republic of China in 1958. Thus, Mao's rise to power was due to his personal appeal and his ability to a great extent."

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