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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. To what extent was the Soviet Union under Stalin a totalitarian state?

    In addition, millions of other people disappeared or were also sent to labor camps (Walsh 133). Stalin became more powerful than before as he have gotten rid of his political rivals. He was able to take control over the citizens the way he wanted to since there was no one standing in his way. His aggressiveness resulted in people living in fear and anxiety because no one wanted to challenge his authority. The citizens had no choice but to follow Stalin's rules as they were afraid of ending up in labor camps or getting killed like the rest.

    • Word count: 940
  2. Was the American Revolution Revolutionary?

    Furthermore, Grenville attempted the Stamp of 1765, which "required that tax stamps be purchased and placed on all legal documents, liquor, and other licenses..." hoping to profit from the colonists in a new way (Jordan 87). However the colonists realized that The Sugar Act, The Quartering Act and The Stamp Act were all devised to use the colonists' wealth to fund England and prevent deceitful colonists from obtaining further wealth. At this time, the colonists were interested in self-government (the policy of salutary neglect), the ability to grow freely, and have the opportunities to obtain proper wealth.

    • Word count: 3409
  3. The Missouri Compromise. The fear of politicians was that if Missouri was admitted as a slave state the Louisiana Purchase would be influenced in terms of allowing or disallowing slavery.

    This sudden heightened demand for cotton seemed to reignite the demand for slaves. However, in 1808, Jefferson made the importation of slaves illegal, in turn, creating a huge domestic slave trade. As slavery raged, the large westward acquired territory, known as the Louisiana Purchase, lingered and an unexpected issue arose. According to the Northwest Ordinance, a state could apply for statehood if they had five thousand voting residents and a government. Missouri fit these requirements and applied to become a state, but the large westward territory would surely be influenced by the admission of another slave state in the Union.

    • Word count: 815
  4. Can we know history?

    The historians I will discuss, Gaddis, Brecht, and Hobsbawm, have ideas on how history and the past differ. Gaddis believes that history is what we've extracted from the past. He thinks that history can be known but the past can only be known with our accessible information. We only can learn about the future by using the past, and our knowledge of it. Gaddis thinks that the past is entirely inaccessible and we must use the recorded history to determine future events and possible obstacles.

    • Word count: 635
  5. The emancipation of the serfs in Russia was the only genuine reform introduced by Alexander II. To what extent do you agree with this assertion? The emancipation of the serfs in Russia was the only genuine reform introduced by Alexand

    There can be no doubt that the reform defrauded the peasants. (...)", I would say that the end of serfdom was even less efficient in the end than some other undertaken reforms. In my work, in each paragraph I will evaluate introduced by Tsar reforms, starting with agriculture, then army, education and eventually local government and legal reforms, to show their strengths and weaknesses and to prove their efficiency comparing with the end of serfdom in Russia. Freedom of the serfs in Russia was one of the main social changes and achievements of Alexander II.

    • Word count: 1126
  6. The Causes and Effects of Chinese-Japanese conflicts in the 1930s

    For example, "Shina" is the word Japanese used to call China before and during World War II. It was seen as an insult because Japanese explained the word as "slave". As the use of "Shina" was spread day by day, the atmosphere in the two countries changed. Also on 18 September 1931, a small number of Japanese and Chinese soldiers clashed outside of Fengtien (Mukden) in southern Manchuria- an event which soon developed into what was to be a long, drawn-out, intermittent war between China and Japan.

    • Word count: 2139
  7. Analysis of World war 1 music - Analysis of Keep the Fires Burning

    Keep the Home Fires Burning, While your hearts are yearning, Though your lads are far away they dream of home. Theres a silver lining, through the dark clouds shining, Turn the dark cloud inside out 'till the boys come home I believe this song was written at the beginning of the war because, in terms of reflecting general mood of the public, this piece is very cheerful so Canadian's were not tired

    • Word count: 566
  8. Was the Russian Revolution due more to tsars inadequacy as a ruler of the people or the political ideas of radical groups becoming more appealing to the people?

    An analysis of the findings will indicate the defining cause of the Russsian Revolution such as the February Revolution or the Russo- Japanese War (1904-1905) and its effects. The method of investigation would be to use history books to find quotes from speeches of radical groups, and events that have occurred in history. B. Summary of Evidence Russo- Japanese War The Russo- Japanese War, 1904-05, was a war between Russia and Japan because both countries wanted to control Manchuria and Korea.

    • Word count: 2490
  9. Who opposed slavery in the US and why?

    Economic debates over slavery abounded during the 1840's. As abolitionist sentiment grew, much attention began to be focused on whether slavery was beneficial or detrimental to the American economy. The argument was based largely on the concept of free versus slave labor. Free labor, argued anti-slavery groups, would be more economically sound in that it would encourage competition and foreign investment, as well as acting as a lure for immigrants.

    • Word count: 516
  10. To what extent did ideology play a role in helping Hitler come to power in 1933?

    Anti-Semitism had always been a popular ideology in Europe where the Jews were seen as misers due to their occupation, which was generally as moneylenders. Most of the time this meant that they were rich and successful again creating a lot of anger towards them. Hitler built on this and blamed the deterioration of Germany, the signing of the Treaty of Versailles and the many economic crises on the Jews. During a time of hatred and uncertainty the German people readily accepted, and even to some extent due to Hitler manipulation skills and use of scapegoats, this chance to blame their problems on someone else.

    • Word count: 1602
  11. Can the period between 1924-1929 really be called the Golden period for the Weimar Republic?

    Moreover, many historians saw the republic as one of "the most democratic constitutions in the world." Both men and women over 20 were allowed to vote, something not even Britain, a leading superpower, had at that time. Without the repeated attacks, the Weimar Republic was then able to concentrate on larger economic issues rising like hyperinflation and reparation payments. In November 1923, Stresemann resigned from Chancellorship and instead took the position of the Foreign Minister of Germany. At this moment of time, hyperinflation was a growing issue and the government printing extra money was only worsening the situation.

    • Word count: 2619
  12. To what extent is there validity to Ilan Pappes argument that the Palestinians were victims of a deliberate Israeli policy of ethnic cleansing in 1948?

    * Were not really "refugees" * Plan D didn't actually state the idea of ethnic cleansing. Was vague. * Was there to counter the incoming Arab attacks on the newly created state * More Arabs against the Jews. The Jews had been persecuted and were refugees themselves. * The Arabs were ill prepared. * Jews encourages the Palestinians to stay put. * Arab villages in Galilee were left intact. To what extent is there validity to Ilan Pappe's argument that the Palestinians were victims of a deliberate Israeli policy of "ethnic cleansing" in 1948? Ethnic cleansing is "the mass expulsion or killing of members of an unwanted ethnic or religious group in a society", as Ilan Pappe suggests happened in the 1948 to the Palestinians by the Jews in the newly established state of Israel.

    • Word count: 1980
  13. Napoleon Rule in France. Revision notes.

    o Went to Egypt. France could threaten Britain's rich eastern trade. o In 1789 Napoleon and an army of 40,000 embarked at Marseilles, and landed in Egypt. * In November 1799, Napoleon called together the council of 500 and demanded that it change the constitution to reflect the views of Sieyes and the other conspirators. o The council of 500 refused and began to hurl abuse at him. * Troops were called in: coup d'�tat of 18 Brumaire. * Abolished a fourth government (since the revolution began ten years before) * Consulate = three parts o Council of state drafted laws o Tribunate debate laws o The legislative assembly passes or rejects legislation without discussion.

    • Word count: 597
  14. Revision notes . Napoleon - Reasons for Second Coalition

    o This treaty resulted in France taking control of numerous Austrian territories. The lands that France took possession of included the Austrian Netherlands (which is now Belgium), a few Mediterranean islands, as well as northern Italy. o As a result of this treaty, France also expanded its borders to the Rhine. o There was also a hate towards the French because of the assassination of Marie Antoinette.

    • Word count: 453
  15. To what extent was the failure of the British Mandate for Palestine attributable to Zionist unity?

    The British government generally adopted their recommendations, then changed its mind and sent more commissions to Palestine. Britain didn't do any economic beneficial during the time they were in Palestine instead they left with unsettlements because they gave out promises they didn't meant to. Britain wanted to have Palestine equally split between the Zionists and the Arabs; however this was never going to happen. This is because either side wouldn't agreed upon their agreements on sharing land. Jews and Arabs in Palestine both wished to gain an independent state under British's sponsorship. The British believed that setting up a national home state for the Jews would not hurt the Arabs.

    • Word count: 832
  16. Lenins Rise to Power Essay

    At the time of the Bolshevik Communist seizure of power in October 1917 Russia had, for more than three years, been involved in the First World War. The turmoils associated with this major war inevitably produced much economic dislocation and many shortages of essential items including food, fuel and clothing. Agricultural and Industrial production were down from the levels of 1913. Perhaps a third of Russia's working horses had been diverted towards direct services associated with the war. The railways were suffering from disrepair and parts shortages.

    • Word count: 1623
  17. To what extend does the number of deaths and debt during the construction of the Panama Canal out weights the profit and practicality that it provided during the 1900s?

    (Sass, 140) The navy sent the USS Oregon, which was stationed in San Francisco, to replace it. It took 67 days for the boat to reach its destination, and event though it was on time, the US government believed that it could have been done in three weeks if they could just cross over Central America. (Omar, 54)President Roosevelt sees more potential in building a canal in Panama, so he convinces congress to support a $40 million purchase for a canal in Panama rather than Nicaragua, and the acquisition of land to serve as a canal zone.

    • Word count: 2390
  18. US History. How did the activity of Boss Tweed influence the way the federal government regulated municipal politics?

    Summary of Evidence The Role of Federal Government over New York Before Tweed * In the 1800's New York had an influx of immigration from Eastern Europe (Calhoun 63). * In 1834, New York City received the right to select its own mayor (Lankevich 91). * There was an increasing demand for public services such as sewage systems, transportation systems, and police departments (Lankevich 91). * Alliances emerged between city officials and businessmen (Lankevich 91). * Immigrant voters often supported bosses in order to obtain services unusually provided by government agencies (Lankevich 91).

    • Word count: 2298
  19. To what extent did Samuel Adams use of propaganda and strategy influence loyalists toward adopting anti-British policies?

    * In 1747 Adams created a club for discussing political problems (Alexander 7). * Adams published his Independent Advertiser essays in the 1740's based upon the works of John Locke (Alexander 8). * Adams was sympathetic toward the taxpayers. He failed to collect the amount required, which resulted in conflict with the British (Canfield 7). * Adams was reelected by the town meeting as a tax collector for Boston multiple times despite his failure to collect his quota (Lewis 24). * During this period, Adams carefully challenged Parliament while avoiding being declared as disloyal (Alexander 20).

    • Word count: 1961
  20. To what extent, if any, did the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster contribute to the fall of the Soviet Union?

    dominated many aspects of society, such as the appointments of government officials as well as economic enterprises.2 However, by the early 1980s, central control of the economy under Party officials led to a drop in the standard of living and a deteriorating economy.3 After years of inefficiency and corruption, shortages of many types of goods and supplies began to appear and plague the country. Party officials became wealthier, and few relief efforts were executed to reconstruct the system where only a select few were granted administrative positions through the approval of the Communist Party.4 Newly-appointed General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev sought to reform this nomenklatura system and the Soviet economy.

    • Word count: 2499
  21. To what extent do you agree with the assessment that Alexander II proved to be a disappointing liberal?

    By making it communal landowning, the serfs couldn't leave their land because they couldn't afford it. The nobility had larger portions of land; they also had the fertile land therefore the serfs were in a much worse position. The serfs had less land than before and to make the situation worse, they had a large debt to pay. The communities greatly delayed production, and Russia did not have a labor force, which stopped her from entering a full scale industrial revolution. The emancipation seemed to have given the serfs more freedom, but with this freedom came huge amounts of responsibility, this freedom was not real.

    • Word count: 1184
  22. Did Germany plan and wage a deliberate war of aggression in 1914?

    The Schlieffen plan was a strategy devised by Count Alfred Von Schlieffen in order to succeed against Russia and France by avoiding the war of two fronts. The strategy was to take advantage of the anticipated differences in the three countries speed in preparing for war. To be exact, the main point was to avoid a war of two fronts by focusing all the troops in the Western front, quickly defeating France and then rapidly turning its forces on to the Eastern front, Russia.

    • Word count: 1608
  23. To what extent was the Spanish Civil war caused by the actions of Mola in 1936

    The result was that the army became more prioritized within Spain, this was important as it was the reason why Primo de Rivera's coup succeeded against the Spanish King Alfonso XIII who was in conflict with the Spanish politicians due to his anti-democratic views. It was no surprise that the Spanish population, especially the middle/upper class as they dominated the jobs of officers and generals, supported Miguel Primo de Rivera in his military uprising against the monarchy because of Alfonso's humiliating defeat for Spain in the 1921 Moroccan War.

    • Word count: 1476
  24. World War 2. To what extent was Italy involved in Operation Barbarossa?

    I also intend to compare interpretations of different historians, found on websites such as Spartacus.co.uk, and use their quotations to support my arguments in order to create an encompassing and multifaceted exploration and knowledge of the extent of the Italian participation in the Operation Barbarossa. Summary of evidences(760 ) Italian participation in the Eastern Front during World War II began after the launch of Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941. Barbarossa was the secret plan that Germany had thought of in order to defeat her biggest enemy: Russia.

    • Word count: 1979
  25. Origins of WWI. Throughout The Origins of World War One, Dr Gary Sheffield examines the origins of the conflict.

    Germany however, was quite conscious of this and therefore wanted to overtaken Britain. Europe was split into two sides, the Triple Entente and the Central Powers. In the Summer of 1914, Germany was already filling to risk a full scale war. Despite a war with Russia, Germany continued to order the blank cheque; this way, she would be able to break up the Entente. The most dramatic of interpretations however, relate to how Germany had already been planning an aggressive war since December 1912 (Kaiser).

    • Word count: 603

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