Defining and Analyzing Mixed Method Johnson and Christensen (2007) describe mixed research as the third and newest research methodology paradigm.

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Defining and Analyzing Mixed Method

Johnson and Christensen (2007) describe mixed research as the third and newest research methodology paradigm. Philosophically, mixed research takes an eclectic, pragmatic, and commonsense approach, suggesting that the researcher mix quantitative and qualitative in a way that works best for the given research question that is studied in a particular context. Mixed research uses both deductive and inductive methods, obtains both quantitative and qualitative data, attempts to corroborate and complement findings and takes a balanced approach to research. Researchers used the term mixed method to refer to all procedures collecting and analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data in the context of a single study.

According to Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004), some researchers have taken issue with the term mixed methods to describe research designs that consciously blend both approaches within or across the stages of the research process. Researchers seeking associations between primarily quantitative biophysical and primarily qualitative socio cultural data, including environmental and natural resource anthropologists can look to mixed method research designs for structured and tested integrative processes. Such designs have been used to augment traditional methods for assessing and monitoring the impacts of recreation and tourism on the physical environment (Mackay, 2004).

Defining and Analyzing Qualitative Method

On the other hand, Shank (2002) defines qualitative research as a form of systematic empirical inquiry into meaning. By systematic he means, planned, ordered, and public, following rules, agreed upon by members of the qualitative research community. By empirical, he means that this type of inquiry is grounded in the world of experience. Inquiry into meaning says researchers try to understand how others make sense of their experience. Lincoln (2000) claims qualitative research involves an interpretive and naturalistic approach; this means that qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of, or to interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. Qualitative research will be used to determine research topics seeking an explanation of "why?" or "how?" Peltzer (2001) ask why do people take snuff and how do people start using it. New research may ask why smoking is increasing among women. How does the tobacco industry recruit and maintain the loyalty of some scientists and politicians? Bjerke (1994) asks why water extinguishes fire. The author response is because water is wet, or because the fire principle and the water principle are not compatible! Why do flames rise? He responds because the fire element is to light! The various methodological approaches differ, above all, in the sense that they make different assumptions about the reality they try to explain and understand. This, in turn, means that observations, collections of data, and results are determined to a large extend by the approach chosen.

Defining and Analyzing Quantitative method

Last, Creswell (1994) defines quantitative research as a survey design provide a quantitative or numeric description of some fraction of the population, the sample trough the data process of asking questions of people. Often, these studies have many participants and have a large number of participants because this gives analysis more statistical power. The researcher tests cause and effect because, theoretically, all (or most) variables between the manipulated variable and the outcome are controlled in the experiment (Creswell, 1994).

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Thus, Creswell (2007) concludes that there are distinct, quantitative research has two major subtypes which experimental and nonexperimental research. Mixed research also has two major subtypes, which mixed method and mixed model research. Qualitative research has five major subtypes: phenomenology, ethnography, case study, grounded theory, and historical research.

Comparison of the methods

On the surface, quantitative research can be easily distinguished from qualitative research in terms of the results. Mixed methods designs can provide pragmatic advantages when exploring complex research questions. The qualitative data provide a deep understanding of survey responses, and statistical analysis can provide detailed assessment of pat ...

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