Personality Characteristics. Psychodynamic theory, made popular by Sigmund Freud, makes personality a completely biological construct. Freud believed that the building blocks of personality existed in the individuals drives and within the unconscious
Running head: PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS PAPER Personality Characteristics Paper ANTHONY STAMATOURAS UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX PSYCH 504 July 13, 2009 Personality Characteristics Paper Many theories exist on the development of personality. To some theorists, personality is built on purely biological factors. Other theorists consider personality to be a construct built entirely on environmental factors. Still other theorists believe that while personality development is based in biology, it is influenced by environmental factors. Even more confusing is that each one of these viewpoints can be effectively argued. Psychodynamic theory and trait theory are two of these personality development theories. The development of my own personality will be discussed in terms of these theories, psychodynamic theory and trait theory Psychodynamic theory, made popular by Sigmund Freud, makes personality a completely biological construct. Freud believed that the building blocks of personality existed in the individual's drives and within the unconscious and subconscious workings of the human brain. Psychodynamic theory relies on subjective decisions being made based on observations made by the therapist. On the other hand, trait theory is an objective theory that extends from testing done on measurable criteria. These criteria, the Big Five proposed as being consistent traits
Punishment is when a response is followed by a stimulus that suppresses the frequency of a response in the future and this stimulus is called the punisher.
Punishment is when a response is followed by a stimulus that suppresses the frequency of a response in the future and this stimulus is called the punisher. Bandura and Walters (1959) stated that children who are made to suffer grow up to be adults who make others suffer (as cited in Chance, 1999). They begin to deal with their problems in later life with troublesome behaviour and inflicting pain on others just like their punishers did to them when they were younger. Skinner suggested that it is possible to construct a society in which punishable behaviours occur infrequently or never. 'Basically if behavioural technology was used to control behaviour in nonpunitive ways, good behaviours would be common, and there would be little or no need for punitive measures' (Nye, 1993, pg. 104). Skinner's earliest work shows that punishment only has a temporary suppressive effect, rather than permanently decreasing responding. Conclusions form Estes' (1944) work shows that within limits more intense and frequent punishment produces greater response suppression providing that the punishment stimulus is reliable and immediately follows the response (as cited in Leslie, 1996, pg. 256). Misbehaviour persists in spite of punishment because it is also reinforced. This happens when the alternative of other behaviours are so daunting and unknown that they think they may receive more
What, if anything, would be morally improper about carrying out medical experiments on human embryos with the aim of improving quality of life of subsequent born individuals?
What, if anything, would be morally improper about carrying out medical experiments on human embryos with the aim of improving quality of life of subsequent born individuals? Embryo experimentation is a relatively new and groundbreaking, yet contentious issue, which has inspired much debate in recent years. It involves the use of spare embryos that are created when couples turn to in vitro fertilisation, or IVF, as a means of conceiving when conventional methods prove to be ineffective. It is what is done with these 'spare' embryos that is the centre of debate. Some believe that simply removing a human egg from a woman for fertilization and implantation is immoral (Grobstein, 1982, p. 20), while others object to any experimentation on an embryo that results in it's destruction, due to the status of the embryo, and the belief that it has a right to life (Great Britain Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation and Embryology, 1985, p. 61). Others hold the view that it is morally permissible to experiment on the embryo, as doing so can be beneficial in many ways, including assisting in the diagnosis of fertility problems and the eradication of diseases (Fisher, 1989, p. 194). It is these breakthroughs that can help to improve the quality of life for future generations of people. IVF was created so that infertile couples would have the opportunity to reproduce, in
Is Underdevelopment a Problem Caused by the Human or Physical Environment?
Richard Wright A325665 Geography Is Underdevelopment a Problem Caused by the Human or Physical Environment 28/10/2003 Is Underdevelopment a Problem Caused by the Human or Physical Environment Underdevelopment has a multitude of different interpretations for its definition and explanation, there is not a particular single cause, or effect for underdevelopment, it is however a word that has multiple definitions and multiple explanations, from both a physical and a human environmental perspective. According to the dictionary underdevelopment is a state of inadequate development; where the term development is understood to mean an act of improvement, either by expanding, enlarging or refining from the current situation, an example of underdevelopment might be, "much poverty can be traced to the underdevelopment of industry." or "an area that is lacking in natural resources and is in a poor environmental location and will therefore find development more difficult." The most commonly used indicators of development and underdevelopment can be measured from studies carried out by institutions such as (UNDP) United Nations Development Program or The (WHO) World Health Organization or even the World Bank. These institutions have standardized methods of data that enable researchers to be able to take accurate measurements on the state of "Human" underdevelopment around the globe;
My activity was based on Year 1 literacy following a full week lessons. This came about following a discussion with the class teacher that, as I was to organise, plan and deliver a lesson that fitted in with what was required
Introduction Learning is an individual process of which many factors can contribute to our effectiveness and willingness to learn. We each learn in different ways and there are many differing theories in practice today in educational settings that are currently being used. This assignment looks at these theories and how, by offering an effective learning experience for children, play and education is developed to meet individual children's requirements in the classroom. This will be delivered in a written assignment and a presentation. The presentation will focus on an individual whole class session taking pedagogy into account. The assignment will cover the class session and look into relevant theories and learning styles that can be used effectively in the classroom. My Activity My activity was based on Year 1 literacy following a full week lessons. This came about following a discussion with the class teacher that, as I was to organise, plan and deliver a lesson that fitted in with what was required from the National Literacy Strategy, it would be more beneficial for the children and my own professional development, that I completed the full week as this is how the children are used to working - a topic building up for completion over the full week. My assignment fitted in very well with the schools' target of trying to use each learning strategy of audio, visual and
This essay will look at the Cognitive explanation of gender and its theories and evaluate it in detail. Cognitive theory on gender emphasises the role of thinking process.
Evaluate one theory of the gender acquisition and development. Gender-role development is one of the most important areas of human development. Many factors from birth contribute as to how individuals identify their gender acquisition: male /female, masculine/famine. This essay will look at the Cognitive explanation of gender and its theories and evaluate it in detail. Cognitive theory on gender emphasises the role of thinking process. Thus covering how children take on and make sense of information about gender and how over time their understanding develops. Cognitive psychologists assume that changes in gender role behaviour reflect changes in how children understand and think about gender. These changes in understanding, in turn reflect (A) the gathering of information about gender absorbed from the environment and (B) developmental changes in the child's brain that allows it to process information in more sophisticated ways. Moreover theorists like Kohlberg and his 'Cognitive Developmental Theory', and also William Damon (1977) who actually carried out a study on Kohlbergs CDT. This theory looks at thought processes and how children progress and develop their gender through age progression and storing information. This explanation has faced criticisms from other theorists such as the biological approach; they disagree with the theory that, identical twin babies are
Sigmund Freud In the 1920s, the world was changing dramatically. Underground salons were built, new architecture was used and modern dance was introduced. If it were not for certain people, the world would not be the way it is today. In the twenties, new theories and ideas in science and psychology were being presented daily. Sigmund Freud changed the world of psychology by presenting new and controversial ideas on psychology and having his theories published. Freud broke cultural boundaries as he fought scientists opposed to his books and continued to study the human mind. Freud truly helped change the world in the 1920s and his influence remains today. Sigmund Freud was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1856. His father was a small time merchant. Sigmund's family moved to Vienna when he was four. Freud was very ambitious and a good student. In 1873, Freud entered the medical school of the University of Vienna. Freud was mainly interested in science and hoped become a neuropsychological researcher. However, because of his financial situation, Freud was unable to pursue his desired career. Researchers in the twenties had to be wealthy because they were paid based on their findings. While in medical school, Freud developed a friendship with Josef Breuer, another physician and psychologist. One of Josef Breuer's patients was Anna O. Anna O. was a young woman who had a
Relationship with My Mother.
Lauren Pagoto Com 315 Dr. Costello Final Paper Relationship with My Mother By studying the importance of communication and behaviors in our lives, I realize that many aspects of communication affect interpersonal situations and relationships. I am someone who has parts of my character that result due to different forms of the communicative experience. I will look at self-concept issues, interpersonal and social interactions to examine the relationship with my mother. In this class I have learned that communication is everywhere and constant in our lives and we develop interpersonal situations and a self through all of this. What is most relevant to my mother is how communication strongly forms her identity, and this affects our interpersonal situations at certain times. We form concepts of ourselves, as we develop who we are through communicating with others, and so my communication with my mother is perfectly relevant. The development of our self-concepts is generative rather than reflective. My mother and I's self-concept is the major issue in terms of not only us as personalities, but also the influence it has on our relationships and communicative interactions. A lot of our self-concept comes from various interactions we have with significant others, and strangers. I know that interactions with my mother bring happiness and love, but also uncertainty, and
Since Brocas 1861 discovery, the left and right cerebral hemispheres have been characterised as being verbal and nonverbal respectively. Though this dichotomy serves adequately as a rule of thumb, an increasing body of research has highlight
Since Broca's 1861 discovery, the left and right cerebral hemispheres have been characterised as being verbal and nonverbal respectively. Though this dichotomy serves adequately as a rule of thumb, an increasing body of research has highlighted linguistic capacity in the supposedly 'nonverbal' right hemisphere. Compare and contrast the language processing abilities of the left and right hemispheres, paying particular attention to their phonological processing abilities. Make sure you draw on evidence from visual half field research and either clinical/split brain or imaging research to support your arguments. The right and left hemispheres of the brain are similar in appearance; being mirror images of each other. However, on closer neuropsychological examination the hemispheres differ, particularly in the planum temporal of the cortical region. This area is involved in the processing of language and it is seen that it is larger in the left hemisphere than the right hemisphere in 65% of subjects (Haralambos, 2002). The major differences between the two hemispheres are their functions. Each hemisphere controls the movements made by the opposite side of the body. The same applies to visual processing but with more complicating factors. So the left visual field is represented in the right hemisphere and visa versa. Therefore damage to the right hemisphere will cause loss
Which is the most important of the Saussurean dichotomies?
Which is the most important of the Saussurean dichotomies? Saussure was unhappy with the manner in which language, and the study of language, were dealt with in his time. As a result he refused to publish anything of his own, his legacy was brought to us through the work of his students. Saussure's principle complaint with how language was studied was that it was not in any way structured. It his work that has changed that and has resulted in present day linguistics. To understand the relationship between the structure of language and its use, we must explore some of the dichotomies that are characteristic of Saussure's work. The most well known, and perhaps most misunderstood, are langue and parole. Briefly, langue is the system of a language where parole is the actual speech that takes place. In parole, the speaker selects and combines elements from langue to manifest concepts. Saussure says that langue is the more important of the two, and is in fact very important to the formalisation of language and its study. The emphasis on langue has allowed for the creation of whole new disciplines. Examples are phonetics and phonology which study the physical act of sound production and the distinction between sounds respectively. In addition Saussure's work has been built upon by countless other linguists, such as Chomsky. Saussure also discusses other dichotomies. The