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  1. Summary of a Psychology Journal

    Four versions of the case were constructed to create a 2 � 2 between-subjects factorial design with two levels of witness confidence (high vs. low) and two levels of witness error (no error vs. error). The witnesses were asked to give evidence about a robbery on campus and in the high vs low condition the high confidence witness was certain of the time whereas the low confidence witness was more skeptical however the defense attorney concluded it was correct. In the error vs no error condition the high confidence witness was discovered to be incorrect and vice versa for the low confidence witness.

    • Word count: 921
  2. Theories of Aggression

    In the non-aggressive condition the model played with the toys. In the aggressive condition the model repeatedly hit the doll with the mallet, and was verbally aggressive towards the doll. The children were then taken into a room with a Bobo doll and a mallet, and they too began hitting the doll and used many of the same verbal terms as the model used. The children who were with the non-aggressive model did not hit the Bobo doll, and showed no aggression. This shows strong evidence that children are likely to copy behaviour which they would unlikely produce otherwise.

    • Word count: 796
  3. Pro and anti social behaviour

    Examples of Aggression. * Getting even, cursing when you hurt yourself * Substitute responses help deflect aggression * Aggressive behaviour is frequently forced into culturally defined patterns. Some of these are prohibited, some are permitted and some are actually rewarded by social approval. Dollard et al (1939)

    • Word count: 285
  4. relative deprivation theory

    This states that aggression may arise if we feel we are 'hard done by'.

    • Word count: 90
  5. Discuss the role of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous Zeitgebers in biological rhythms

    However, this is only one study and so cannot be used to generalise to everybody and therefore lacks validity. Morgan (1995) removed the SCN from hamsters and found that their circadian rhythms disappeared. These rhythms could be re-established by transplanted SNC cells from foetal hamsters. Morgan also transplanted the cells from hamsters who had been bred to have shorter cycles than normal and found that the transplanted hamsters took on the mutant rhythms. However, the validity of animal research is questionable, as the results cannot be generalised to humans. Another endogenous pacemaker is the pineal gland and melatonin. This gland contains light receptors that respond to external light via the thin layer or skull that lies above the gland.

    • Word count: 847
  6. Outline and assess the structionalist themes of crime and deviance Structural theories of deviance are similar to Merton's theory. They

    Deviance occurs when they reject the goals of success and/or the legitimate means of reaching that goal. For example, some people are tempted to use nay means of getting to the top-even if that involves criminal behaviour. Merton refers to this pressure as a 'strain to anomie'. Anomie means normlessness - it refers to a situation where norms no longer guide behaviour, where 'anything goes'. Despite what the American dream says, not everybody has an equal chance at success. The social structure prevents equal opportunity.

    • Word count: 934
  7. Social Influence & Social Cognition

    The 2 confederates stated that the slides were green. The minority(confederates) were able to influence about 32% of the subjects to make at least one incorrect judgement about the colour of the slides they were shown. Moscovici found that a majority can bring about compliance in a group but the subjects may not necessarily believe in what they are saying. However, when a minority influences a majority in a group they can bring about internalisation and the minority can influence the majority to believe in what they are saying.

    • Word count: 903
  8. Theory of crime

    When potential offenders can perceive others as humans rather than as objects, they are less likely to inflict injury upon them. There is strong continuity in antisocial behavior running from childhood through adulthood across a variety of life domains. Social control in adulthood explains changes in criminal behavior over the life span, independent of prior individual differences in criminal propensity. Childhood pathways to crime and conformity over the life course are significantly influenced by adult social bonds. Early delinquency predicts weak adult social bonds, and weak adult social bonds predict concurrent and later adult crime and deviance.

    • Word count: 701
  9. Television, Modelling and Imitation.

    Who are the main characters and what types of models do they represent? The shows that I observed both have many important characters so I will focus on the on the most recently watched episodes. ER is based around a busy metropolitan hospital emergency room recently the major characters have been Dr Susan Lewis, Dr Luka Kovac and Nurse Abby Lockhart. Dr Lewis has befriended an elderly patient setting a good example of social behaviour with older persons. Dr Kovac has focused on treating patient efficiently without excessively charging patients, this sets a model of compassion and generosity.

    • Word count: 879
  10. Bless the Beasts and the Children by Glendon Swarthout - Review.

    There are three major aspects of adolescent development(social redefinition, reckless behavior, and peer groups) that can be seen in the characterization of the "bedwetters" as a group. The boys are making a transition into adulthood, and their mission to free the Buffalo is there symbolic initiation into manhood(right of passage), and a new social role. Parallels can be drawn do the "Bedwetters" "right of passage", and the formal ceremonies and rituals in some cultures that metomorphasize an adolescent into an adult.

    • Word count: 934
  11. The Imperative Relevance of Social Context.

    In any instance of interaction, there must be some sense of reciprocal participation. One participant may or may not be the dominant influencer, but nonetheless, interaction requires a mutual participation between two or more parties. This week's reading from DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach illuminated the historical developments of print, motion pictures, and broadcast media as forms of mass communication. It seems the authors feel the necessity to examine the historical development of media as a foundation from which to evaluate the various proposed theories of how and why the media operates the way that it does.

    • Word count: 485
  12. Attitudes Toward Crime, Police, and the Law - Individual and Neighborhood Differences.

    The studied showed that blacks and Latinos are less tolerant of deviance by teenagers then whites. In economically disadvantaged neighborhoods it showed that smoking, drinking, and fighting among youths and negative towards police and laws was tolerated. In a new study done by "The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods" In 1995 revealed a much different picture. Interviews where conduced on 6,000 children and the primary caregivers over an 8 years span. The results where quite shocking to me.

    • Word count: 719
  13. Paper review - Social cognition & the human brain.

    Another suggestion is that brain size correlates with other factors, such as tool use, longevity or dietary foraging strategy, but brain size could be a partial result of primates having an intricate ecological position regarding social structure. This hypothesis is called the Machiavellian Intelligence hypothesis or the Social Brain hypothesis, & suggests that the sophisticated primate's social structure, with its characteristics of cooperativity & deception led to an advantage for larger brains. This paper looks at the neural foundations of social cognition using lesion studies & functional imaging in the context of what is already known about social cognition, from anthropological, comparative & developmental studies.

    • Word count: 976
  14. Is 'Adolescence turmoil' fact or fiction? Discuss?

    Amongst the traditional myth of 'adolescent turmoil', certain theorists, such as, Freud, Erikson and Piaget have all developed their own notions of this progression into adulthood, however, each concept criticises the other and the private experience of puberty remains within each individual. When you go through adolescence you change in many ways; most common is the biological or physical change that your body endures known as 'puberty'. Girls normally reach the start of puberty first at around the age of 10 during which stage they may experience their first menstruation, whereas, boys tend to develop later, by about 14 years of age, by which time will have encountered their first e*********n.

    • Word count: 716
  15. The aim of this essay is to show that it has been proven by psychological research that "however much we might like to believe otherwise, when in the presence of others our behaviour changes".

    This has been modified to the current definition of "the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses of others". Tripplet (1898), cited in (Myers, D G, Social Psychology, New York, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002), conducted one of psychology's first laboratory experiments. In this children were told to wind a fishing reel as fast as they could.

    • Word count: 364
  16. Compare and contrast the labelling perspective and rational choice theory.

    Labelling perspective seek to understand the 'meaning' in human behaviour (Young, 1981:286). Whereas rational choice perspective in seeks to understand and control human behaviour (1). Context Labelling perspective initially emerged in the 1960's and early 1970's (Young, 1981:286; Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 2002:105). This perspective was greatly influenced by the libertarian currents which were widespread within western capitalist societies at this time (Young, 1981:286). In contrast the rational choice theorists were influenced by the politics of control. Within the 1980's and 1990' many old theories were revitalised in a period of rising conservatism, which represented principles of individual responsibility, yet often turned a blind eye to social circumstances (Lilly, Cullen & Ball 2002:201).

    • Word count: 880
  17. Are phobias best understood as an exaggeration of normal fears?

    One of the earliest attempts to define the etiology of a phobia was made by Freud. He suggested that phobias occur due to the anxiety produced by the phobic's desire to seduce his mother (the Oedipus complex) conflicting with the fear of castration by his father. This consciously unacceptable conflict, and the anxiety caused by it, is instead displaced onto the phobic object (Freud, 1909, as cited in Rosenhan & Seligman, 1989). This suggests that the psychoanalytical interpretation views phobias as qualitatively different from normal fears.

    • Word count: 885
  18. Outline and Evaluate research into causes of aggression

    This theory is supported by Bandura et al's experiment of bobo dolls 1961. Bandura stated children and adults acquire new styles of conduct through filmed and televised modelling, which shows television violence could cause a person to become aggressive. Phillips (1986) also found evidence that supports the SLT. He discovered homicide rate in the U.S always increased; the week following a major boxing match. It suggests viewers were imitating the behaviour they watched and that social learning is evident in adults. However there is no direct evidence to link homicide rate with those who watched the match.

    • Word count: 584
  19. Describe and evaluate research (theories and/or studies) into the effects of two or more environmental stressors on aggressive behaviour.

    Hotter regions of the world tend to have more aggression than cooler areas. It's the same with hotter seasons and days. It can be argued that it may not necessarily be the heat that causes aggression but other factors associated with heat such as alcohol. The routine activity theory shows that during summer people tend to spend more time outside and engage in interpersonal relationships. They are more likely to go to the park, be in crowded situations, drink beverages and also drive fast. This causes them to get exhausted faster and behave aggressively. This theory can support naturalistic studies but cannot explain temperature itself causing aggression.

    • Word count: 552
  20. Outline and evaluate two theories of the cause of aggression

    When Doob and Sear's experiments were repeated with justified frustration, then anger decreased significantly. The whole hypothesis has been strongly criticised. Frustration does not inevitably result in aggression. It is important to identify the circumstances under which frustration will end in aggression. For example the frustrated individual may well bust into tears, and instead of using aggression as a releaser, may well instead become depressed and withdraw from the situation. This is not surprising considering the restraints on aggressive behaviour within all human societies. There are also innumerable examples of aggression which does not arise from frustration, for example cold blooded acts of premeditated murder committed by a paid killer.

    • Word count: 808
  21. How effective is the learning perspective in explaining aggressive behavior?

    Since the Behaviorist approach is limited to only what is observable, these two aspects have many weaknesses and limitations. In between the two aspects, there are many suggestions of how aggression can be learned, but then again many ways remain unaccounted for. Instrumental aggression is aggressive behavior which is maintained because it is positively reinforced (Glassman, 303). This idea is the same theory of positive reinforcement, the only difference being specifically under these circumstances is that this response is labeled as 'aggressive'. A very simple example of this is fraud. Fraud is when an individual or a company takes someone else's money which does not belong to them, the instant outcome of this is that the individual or company

    • Word count: 624
  22. Critically consider research into the effects of two environmental stressors on aggressive behaviour.

    as this was a laboratory experiment it would not represent real life situations and would therefore lack ecological validity. Baron also did another study with Ransberger (1978) who also found that incidences of violence could lead to increased levels of aggression. Their data was on incidents of group violence which was based on a naturalistic study which has ecological validity and confirms that temperature can act as a stressor leading to an aggressive response, however if temperature increases too high then aggression decreases again.

    • Word count: 600
  23. Aggression in Gill (1966).

    not break the agreed rules of the sport An example of aggression in sport is where David Beckham kicked an Argentinean in the world cup after he received a bad tackle. An example of assertion in sport would be a forceful tackle in rugby as it is within the rules of the game. Channelled aggression is aggression that is used to achieve a goal it is not accompanied by anger. Hostile aggression is behaviour that is intended to harm someone.

    • Word count: 785
  24. Discuss research into the effects of the media on pro and anti social behaviour.

    They became increasingly helpful if they role played pro social events from the programme. Another pro social study was by Sprafkin, Liebert and Poulos in 1975. They studied 6 year olds. Some kids watched an episode of "Lassie", which involved a heroic scene were a boy rescued a dog. The others saw an episode of the "Brady Bunch" (comedy) After watching the Television the children were given an option. They could help some distressed puppies but they would have to stop playing the game that they were playing were you could win "a big prize".

    • Word count: 623
  25. To Investigate How Aggression Affects Performance in Rugby

    In other words "Gamesmanship", which can be said to be cheating within the laws or bending them. An example of this would be going into a tackle and hitting your opponent with your shoulder first then wrapping your arms around them. Assertiveness is not entirely a form of aggression but a use of legitimate strategy and force to achieve a prescribed goal within the laws of rugby. An example of this would be an assertive tackle in the beginning of the game in order to intimidate the opponent.

    • Word count: 984

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and Contrast the Processes Involved in Majority and Minority Social Influence.

    "To conclude, people are influenced by the majority so they can be right and make a good impression on others. Minorities influence with consistency, both over time which is called diachronic consistency and with each other or synchronic consistency. A consistent minority is effective because it is coherent, it disturbs the group norm(s) by creating conflict and it has an innovative impact. Those who can do this have an envied talent."

  • Evaluate The Influence Of Nature And Nurture On The Development Of Aggression

    "In conclusion, the fact that modern humans are much more aggressive than their ancestors shows that environment and upbringing definitely effect levels of human aggression. In the modern world, factors such as "influence of media, smoke, noise pollution, air pollution, abusive parenting, overcrowding, heat, and even atmospheric electricity" can lend a hand in aggravating the aggressiveness in humans. Behaviourists generally view aggression as a set of acquired behaviours and attach less emphasis on biological determinants. These scientists commonly apply the "principles of social learning theory" when addressing aggression. People tend to vary their views on nature versus nurture. They are ready to accept that it is genes that cause diseases and cancer, even obesity and homosexuality. Of course, this takes the blame off of human lifestyle. If it is written into their genes, there is nothing they can do about it. However, the public tends to favour the nurture side of the argument when it breaches sensitive topics such as aggression or intelligence."

  • "Only a critical political economy approach can adequately explain how the media work today". Discuss the pros and cons of this statement, with reference to the following sector of modern media: Advertising.

    "CONCLUSION Though the statement holds a considerable amount of weight, we have to acknowledge that advertising is largely responsible for a critical connection between economics, society, politics, and culture that is at the center of important social issues. The power of advertising is therefore complex: it is a communicator in a "new symbolic environment" which 'moulds' consumption, as well as the form and content of media, politics, perception and behavior. "Consumer capitalism" is unthinkable without its advertising and marketing tools, and advertising really can only be comprehended within the framework of modern free enterprise. Only a "multi-faceted social theory" which merges historical, political, cultural, psychological, economic, and ideological analysis can be capable of providing an important theory of advertising which identifies its social effects from a critical viewpoint that can specify exactly how advertising harms the foundations of social, political, and cultural life."

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