Figure 1: showing gray vagueness areas of different types of aggression
Through the years many psychologist have introduced theories to how and why aggression is caused. Freud and Lorenz suggested that people, like animals have inherent predisposition to act aggressively. And Hobbes (1600’s) called humans “homo Lumpus”, or human wolfs, suggesting that aggressive acts of humans mimic those of savage animals. Hobbes also described how people release their built-up aggression through the act of aggression (Catharsis – Psychology: A technique used to relieve tension and anxiety by bringing repressed feelings and fears to consciousness.) This can be linked to rugby, for example competing against a particular team that has had good results over another team in the past and therefore revenge will want to be taken. Tiger (1969) defines sport as being a socially acceptable way of releasing aggression. In that it contains laws and ways of controlling aggression that might course harm. This is evident within rugby, which contains many laws in order to do so. However Baron and Richardson (1994) say that participating in aggressive sports actually increases aggressive tendencies. For example in rugby England and Australia have a great rivalry that can extend past the playing field due to the history of the two nations.
There are many causes of aggression one of which is “Frustration” (a feeling of annoyance at being hindered or criticized from/for achieving a goal). In the case of rugby, when the opposition prevent the scoring in other words the inability to reach a goal leads to frustration, frustration then invokes an aggressive drive this can then increase the likelihood of taking part in aggressive behaviors.
Figure 2: shows where frustration comes from and leads to.
The diagram above shows the beginning of frustration and how this leads to aggressive acts by Donald (1939). This however was revised by Berkowitz as shown below Figure 3:
Aggressive acts can also be imitated this is better known as the social learning theory (Bandura 1986). Bandura suggested the aggressive behaviors are learned through reinforcement by others or operant conditiSoning (A process of behavior modification in which the likelihood of a specific behavior is increased or decreased through positive or negative reinforcement each time the behavior is exhibited, so that the subject comes to associate the pleasure or displeasure of the reinforcement with the behavior). Observation of others in many cases is the continuation of aggressive acts towards the younger generation. For example, if a person was to observe an aggressive act in a rugby match by one of there roll models then the likelihood of this act being recreated in a different situation is high.
• Watch the behavior.
• Remember the behavior.
• Be able to imitate the behavior.
• Be motivated to imitate the behavior.
Aggressive acts has its effects, McCarthy and Kelly (1978), Russell (1974) research suggests that aggression improves performance. For example a rugby player has to be aggressive to a certain extent in order to avoid harm to themselves, if a performer was to play half heartedly the likelihood of them become injured is high, due to concentration not fully being on, for example making a tackle. However, Silva (1979, 1980) suggested that aggression could hinder performance in that attention is focuses away from the task at hand, or arousal has increased past the optimal level
Figure 4 shows a diagram of the inverted U theory
Y axis = arousal
X axis = performance
The diagram above shows the inverted U theory, which suggests that there is an optimal performance at a certain time during an exercise and if this optimal arousal level is breeched, due to frustration, or anger towards another player or to highly motivated then performance of the activity or game will decrease. This can then lead to frustration due to the fact the goal has not been reached. It is therefore the job of the coach within the rugby team to find out how to reach and what reaches the optimal arousal of each playing in order to increase teams performance.
To conclude aggression can either hinder or if improve performance as long as arousal levels are not breeched.
Don’t know how I can expand on this conclusion advice please